Not long ago, most professional musicians lived in a world far removed from the nitty-gritty of business management, distribution and promotion. But today, social media, laptop production techniques and fragmented musical tastes have largely replaced the old relationship between musicians, their audiences and the marketplace, making entrepreneurial savvy more important than ever.
还在不久以前,大部分专业音乐家对商业管理、发行和促销等具体事宜都不太熟悉。但是如今,社交媒介、手提电脑制作技术以及片段音乐在很大程度上替代了音乐家和观众以及市场间旧的关系,商业头脑比以前任何时候都重要。

A leading U.S. conservatory now teaches students how to create successful careers in this brave new world.
美国一所著名的音乐学院开设课程,教授学生如何在这个崭新世界中成功创业。

In transition

Robert Sirota, president of New York’s prestigious Manhattan School of Music, takes a small break from his chores to play one of his own compositions. It’s one moment of traditional musical expression in a conservatory that recognizes that the music industry is in major transition.
著名的纽约曼哈顿音乐学院院长罗伯特·西罗塔正在演奏一首他自己创作的乐曲。在这所认识到音乐产业正处于巨大转变中的音乐学院里,这是一个传统的、以音乐来表达自己的时刻。

"Everything we know about the business of music-making, and the industry of music - including recordings, the dissemination of published materials, concert venues, the way people get compensated for performance and concerts - have changed radically in the last 20 years," he says, "and it became clear to me and other people of like mind to figure out how to develop young artistic leaders who are truly capable of making their way in this brave new world."
西罗塔说:“过去20年来,原先我们熟知的音乐产业,包括录音、乐谱的传播、音乐会场地、观众得到的享受的方式,所有这一切都在迅速发生变化。我和其他一些和我有相同想法的人清楚地意识到,至关重要的是,音乐学院要与时俱进,甚至走在时代的前面,培养能够在这个勇敢的崭新世界中生存发展的年轻艺术家。”

That’s why the Manhattan School of Music created the Center for Music Entrepreneurship, where students can learn about new media, fundraising, launching their own concert series, producing their own recordings, creating a press kit and other necessary skills.
因此,曼哈顿音乐学院开设了一个“音乐企业家中心”。学生们可以在那里了解新媒体、筹款、筹备音乐会、自己录音以及准备好一整套给媒体的材料。

Business sense

In a nearby lecture hall, students like pop composer Yuma Sung are learning about intellectual property rights law as part of the center’s "Setting the Stage" program.
在附近的一个大教室里,学习流行音乐作曲的尤玛·桑正在了解版权法。他对记者解释了为什么版权法和他有切身关系。

"If someone tries to steal some of my stuff, and if I chose to go to court, I’d know how to deal with it properly," says Sung.
“如果有人剽窃了我的作品,如果我要告上法庭,我就能知道如何去正确应对。”

Sirota, who completed his own conservatory education in the 1970s, contrasts today’s hyper-wired world with what used to be.
西罗塔院长是1970年代从音乐学院毕业的。他把当今高度联网的世界和1970年代的情况进行了比较。

"The status quo as we understood in the music world, was that there were a small number of major international symphony orchestras, there was a select coterie of very elite performers, and there was an established audience of concertgoers," he says. "There were in addition, several multi-national record companies. But what has happened is the way people listen to music has changed."
西罗塔说:“当时,国际上只有少数几个重要的交响乐团,顶尖的演奏家也为数不多,去听音乐会的观众相对比较固定。当时的跨国唱片公司只有几家。但是现在人们听音乐的方式改变了。”

Indeed, most people now listen to music through digital music players, or through downloads, and CDs are mostly a thing of the past, which is why Sirota believes the old business model no longer makes sense.
比如,他们用iPod听音乐,他们下载了音乐后再听,他们不一定要听唱片了。音乐唱片的意义和以前完全不同了,旧的商业模式再也不顶事了。

Responsible advocates for art

Edward Klorman, who directs the center, says the 21st century musician is a multi-tasking entrepreneur. "Sometimes you’re performing. Sometimes you’re an administrator. Sometimes you’re the one marketing your own concert. If we’re passionate about the music we play, we need to be responsible advocates for our art."
爱德华·克洛曼是音乐企业家中心的主任。他认为,21世纪的音乐家是一个可以同时进行多项工作的企业家。克洛曼说:“有时候你是演奏员,由时候你是管理者,有时候你要推销自己的音乐会。如果我们对我们演奏的音乐有激情的话,我们就要负责任地去推广我们的艺术。这正是我们在这里培训的内容。”

Mari Hwang studies piano, harpsichord and conducting at the conservatory. She's learning marketing skills, which connect her to audiences in ways that have little to do with musical talent. "In a conservatory setting we always focus on performance, but a lot of times we [stay] in a practice room and we don’t really learn how to speak to your audience or how to interact with it or how to create new programs for people. And here we learn how, and it’s going to be very beneficial for my career."
玛丽·王在曼哈顿音乐学院学习钢琴、羽管键琴以及指挥。她现在正在学习市场营销技术,也就是用跟音乐天份本身毫无关系的方式与观众建立联系。玛丽·王说: “在音乐学院,我们总是把重点放在表演上,但很多时候,我们花大量时间在琴房里练琴,就是这样。我们不学习怎样和观众沟通,怎样和观众互动,怎样为观众创造出新节目,等等。现在,我们在这儿学习这些东西,我觉得这将对我的职业生涯非常有帮助。”

Klorman knows that many young musicians are daunted by the expertise needed to sustain a successful career today. However, he says the current climate rewards personal initiative and imagination as never before. "And if we are creative about putting together new opportunities, we can carve out a whole new market for ourselves."
克洛曼知道,很多年轻音乐家对今天要保持一个成功的事业所需要的专业技能感到惶恐。但是,克洛曼指出,现在的氛围能使个人的创意和想象力得到前所未有的回报。他说:“如果我们能够有创意地把握住新机会,我们就能为自己开辟出一个崭新的市场。”

Non-traditional approach

He encourages classical musicians can play in nightclubs and other non-traditional venues.

Klorman himself initiated the highly successful "Classical Blue Jeans" series in upstate New York, where both audience members and musicians wear blue jeans, share a pre-concert barbecue and repair to a barn for the concert itself, where concertgoers are invited to offer instant feedback to the musicians.

Klorman says it’s all done in a spirit of inclusion and fun. "It makes for a much more dynamic music world for all of us, and it’s a much more exciting way to live your life as a musician."
“为我们所有人创造出一个更有活力的音乐世界。作为一个音乐家,这是更加激动人心的生活。”

The courses at the Center for Music Entrepreneurship are among the most popular at the Manhattan School of Music. In fact, demand has begun to exceed slots, and the program is expanding. This success has in turn inspired other conservatories to teach business skills for tomorrow’s musical careers.
音乐企业家中心提供的课程是曼哈顿音乐学院最受欢迎的课程。事实上,现在的课程是供不应求,中心的项目正在扩大。这个成功之举也启发了其他音乐学院,把商业技巧教授给未来的音乐家们。