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Jump Back in Time 重建时期 (1866-1877)
 
Occupational portrait of three railroad workers standing on crank handcar, between 1850 and 1860
集结提出一天工作八小时的要求并参与干草市骚乱的劳工是如相片中的典型铁路工人

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"Steel-Driving Song" sung by a worker on the railroad recorded during the Depression Era

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Credits
全国劳工联盟 (National Labor Union) 于1866820日要求一天只工作八小时


干草市暴乱的结果使得一天八小时的工作时数变得太过于激进。因此,民众对于劳工运动、组织的支持开始下滑。正当劳工武士逐渐没落时,「美国劳工联盟」 (American  Federation of Labor) 开始茁壮。这个组织的焦点在于保护个别工会的独立运作与基本权利。

不过在
1933年之前,一天工作八小时的要求并没有得到很大的进展。再那一年,国会通过了「全国工业复兴法案」 (National Industrial Recovery Act) ,这是法兰克林.迪拉诺.罗斯福 (Franklin Delano Roosevelt) 总统为了因应「经济大萧条」 (Great Depression) 所采行的一项紧急措施。这个法案规定工人必须工作最高时数,但领取最微薄的薪水,以及拥有集体谈判的权力 (让工会能代表成员跟雇主谈判的权力) 。这项复兴法案很快救被「华格那法案」 (Wagner Act) 所替换,后者确保劳工有组织工会的权力。到了1950年代,大多数的工人都已经能够一天只工作八小时。你认识任何工会成员吗?


The result of the Haymarket Riot was that the eight-hour-workday movement came to be seen as "radical." Therefore, popular support for organized labor decreased. As the Knights of Labor declined, the American Federation of Labor rose. The Federation focused on protecting the independence and established privileges of individual unions.

Little progress was made in establishing an eight-hour workday until 1933. During this year, Congress passed the National Industrial Recovery Act, an emergency measure taken by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in response to the Great Depression. The Act provided for the establishment of maximum hours, minimum wages, and the right to collective bargaining (allowing unions to represent their members in negotiations with an employer). The Recovery Act was soon replaced by the Wagner Act, which assured workers the right to form unions. It was not until the 1950s that most workers gained the eight-hour workday. Do you know anyone who belongs to a union?

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CREDIT: "Occupational Portrait of Three Railroad Workers Standing on Crank Handcar." Between 1850 and 1860. America's First Look into the Camera: Daguerreotype Portraits and Views, 1842-1862, American Memory collections, Library of Congress.
AUDIO CREDIT: Truvillion, Henry, performer. "Steel-Driving Song." May 16, 1939. Southern Mosaic: The John and Ruby Lomax 1939 Southern States Recording Trip, American Memory collections, Library of Congress.