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Jump Back in Time 进步时代 (1890-1913) 
'Negro Drinking at 'Colored' Water Cooler in Streetcar Terminal, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma,' 1939.
黑人与白人必须使用不同的饮水器与冷藏箱 (1939年摄于奥克拉荷马市的电车站)

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「普莱西对弗格森」 (Plessy v. Ferguson)

有超过50年的时间,美国南方州强制运行一项黑人与白人的隔离政策,不管是在公车上、火车上,饭店里、戏院里,甚至是学校里,他们都被加以隔离。西元1896518日,最高法院审理「普莱西控告弗格森」一案,控诉内容是在争论火车等设施中实施的「隔离但平等」这种政策是否合乎宪法。其中一名叫做约翰.马歇尔.哈蓝 (John Marshell Harlan) 的法官并不同意州政府这种政策,并且主张将黑人与白人在公共场合隔离的作法是不平等的,是在暗示某个种族比其他种族更为低劣。

For over 50 years, the states of the American South enforced a policy of separate accommodations for blacks and whites on buses and trains, and in hotels, theaters, and schools. On May 18, 1896, the Supreme Court ruled in the Plessy v. Ferguson law case that separate-but-equal facilities on trains were constitutional. One justice, John Marshall Harlan, disagreed with the ruling and argued that separating blacks from whites (called segregation) in public facilities created inequality and marked one race as inferior to another.

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