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Jump Back in Time 进步时代 (1890-1913) 
Illustration from Puck in 1902, 'Following the Piper. His Music Enchants the World.'

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考察法 (Expedition Act) 通过了

如果你有玩过纸上游戏大富翁,你就知道游戏的目的是要搜集最多的不动产,或者控制最多的铁道路线。如果你在公园广场 (Park Place) 或者是木板路(Boardwalk)上有一间饭店,那么你就很有可能成功。但是如果你没有,那么一旦你停在这些地方,就必须付出非常昂贵的过路费。在1800年后期,真实世界的生活就变得有点像大富翁一样。人们或公司会合并相关企业的其他公司,让自己尽可能的控制生产数量与价格。其中最有名的例子就是摩根美国钢铁公司 (J. P. Morgan’s U.S. Steel Corporation) 。这间公司控制了钢铁生产的上下游,包括从铁矿的开采,一直到钢铁的制造生产等等。当一家公司对某一项工业拥有如此强大的操控力时,其他公司就很难与其竞争。这就称为独占。拥有独占事业的公司,就能够轻易的控制昂贵的价格与低廉的薪资,因为并没有太多其他的竞争者。你知道这些公司为什么会享有独占事业吗?

If you've ever played the board game Monopoly, you know that the goal is to collect real estate or control railroads. If you have hotels on Park Place and Boardwalk, you're in good shape, but if you don't, then they're expensive places to land. During the late 1800s, life was becoming a bit like a Monopoly game. A person or company would merge businesses with related industries, making it possible to control production and prices. One example was J.P. Morgan's U.S. Steel Corporation. This company controlled all the stages of steel production, from iron-ore mining to steel manufacturing. When one company has such strong control over an industry, it makes it difficult for others to compete. This is called a monopoly. Having a monopoly makes it easier for the company to keep prices high and wages low because it has few competitors. What do you think was done about companies like this?

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