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拉什莫尔山山边的林肯雕像,1937年
拉什莫尔山山边的林肯雕像,1937年


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拉什莫尔山国家纪念碑
地方性遗产

您能讲出雕刻在拉什莫尔山上的总统吗?

令人惊叹的拉什莫尔山国家纪念碑雕刻工程始于1927年。它总共费时14年,动用了350多人才完成。山边的四张总统脸分别为:乔治华盛顿、托马斯杰佛逊、亚伯拉罕林肯及西奥多罗斯福。刚开始,人们建议将西部名人雕刻在这座山上,如:野牛比尔、路易斯和克拉克,及萨卡加维亚。但有一个特殊组织,一「委员会」,却选择这些总统,因为他们最能代表美国的「创建、扩张和维持」。

雕刻师博格勒姆(Gutzon Borglum)受邀设计拉什莫尔山。他选择南达科他州的 黑山,作为这个引人注目的雕刻品的所在地。他决定将大块石头自山上移除的最好办法是使用炸药。他及他的工人对拉什莫尔山的雕刻作业变得极为熟练,他们小心仔细的计算炸药放置地点。事实上,这座山高达90%以上都是用炸药刻成的!剩下的部分则是使用气动锤完成的。总统的脸是一个接一个,按顺序完工的,华盛顿是1930年、杰佛逊是1936、林肯是1937年,而罗斯福是1939。

现在的拉什莫尔山,是美国境内最易辨识的纪念碑之一,每年都有270万游客到此造访。


Can you name the presidents carved on Mount Rushmore?

Carving started on the amazing Mount Rushmore National Memorial in 1927. It continued for 14 years, with the help of more than 350 people. The faces of four presidents are carved into the mountainside: George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt. At first, there was a suggestion to carve famous western figures, people like Buffalo Bill, Lewis & Clark, and Sacagawea. But a special group, a "commission," instead chose these presidents because they best represented the "foundation, expansion and preservation" of the United States.

A sculptor named Gutzon Borglum was asked to design Mount Rushmore. He chose the dramatic setting for this sculpture in the Black Hills of South Dakota. He decided that the best way to remove large pieces of rock from the mountain was to use dynamite. He and his workers became skilled at carving Mount Rushmore using carefully placed dynamite. In fact, more than 90 percent of the mountain was carved by dynamite! The rest was finished using air hammers. The faces of the presidents were finished one by one, Washington in 1930, Jefferson in 1936, Lincoln in 1937 and Roosevelt in 1939.

Today, Mount Rushmore is one of the most recognized monuments in the United States, with more than 2.7 million visitors each year.  

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