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Explore the States 奥克拉荷马
A farmer and his sons walk in a dust storm in Oklahoma in 1936.



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佛罗啦罗伯森(Flora Robertson)太太谈论奥克拉荷马州的沙尘暴

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奥克拉荷马的尘暴干旱(Dust Bowl)

1930年代,在奥克拉荷马的巨大沙尘暴期间,空气中充满了非常多的灰尘,有时能见度会降至零,所有的东西都覆满了沙子。无论奥克拉荷马州的居民如何紧闭窗口,灰尘或沙子就是能够飞进屋来。沙尘暴是长期干旱及土地过度使用的结果。1930年时,这个区域先是发生了旱灾。到了1934年时,旱灾将大平原(Great Plains)变成沙漠,这个沙漠就是有名的尘暴干旱区(Dust Bowl)。


南部平原的土地(含奥克拉荷马在内)原本青草满地,拥有良好的土壤。移民们使用他们带来的常规农业技艺,在自家农场上深耕作物。再加上表土早已遭受无限制放牧的牛、羊破坏。情况非常严重,所以到了1935年时,为改善状况,政府发展变更该区基本农作方法的保护计划。虽然有了这些方法,尘暴干旱仍持续了约十年之久并延长了1930年代大萧条(Great Depression)的时间。

Did you know there was once a desert in Oklahoma called the Dust Bowl?

During the great dust storms of the 1930s in Oklahoma, the weather threw up so much dirt that, at times, there was zero visibility and everything was covered in dirt. No matter how tightly Oklahomans sealed their homes, they could not keep the dirt from entering. Dust storms were the result of drought and land that had been overused. Drought first hit the country in 1930. By 1934, it had turned the Great Plains into a desert that came to be known as the Dust Bowl.

In Oklahoma, the Panhandle area was hit hardest by the drought.

The land of the southern plains, including Oklahoma, was originally covered with grasses that held the fine soil in place. Settlers brought their traditional farming techniques with them when they homesteaded the area and they plowed the land deeply. The topsoil was already damaged by the overgrazing of cattle and sheep. The situation was so serious that, by 1935, the government developed conservation programs to improve the Dust Bowl by changing the basic farming methods of the region. Even with these measures, the Dust Bowl lasted about a decade and contributed to the length of the Great Depression of the 1930s.

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CREDIT: Rothstein, Arthur. "Farmer and sons walking in the face of a dust storm. Cimarron County, Oklahoma." April 1936. America from the Great Depression to World War II: Photographs from the FSA-OWI, 1935-1945, Library of Congress
AUDIO CREDIT: Robertson, Mrs. Flora, interviewee. "Interview About Dust Storms in Oklahoma." August 5, 1940. Voices from the Dust Bowl: The Charles L. Todd and Robert Sonkin Migrant Worker Collection, 1940-1941, Library of Congress.