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Explore the States 新墨西哥
 
Photo of man sitting behind three carved figures
艺术家大卫(David Nabor Lucero)坐在由他亲手雕刻及上色的圣人娃娃后方,1998年圣大非的西班牙市集


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西班牙市集
地方性遗产

您听过圣人娃娃(bulto)吗?照片中的艺术家与他的圣人娃娃一起入镜,圣人娃娃就是涂有明亮色彩的圣人雕像或其他宗教人物的雕像。这位艺术家叫做圣人制作家(ultossantero),他只是新墨西哥 州圣大非的西班牙市集内,诸多艺术家中的一位。

1926年时,西班牙移民艺术协会 (Spanish Colonial Arts Society) 开始为西班牙艺术家举办西班牙市集,他们可在这个市集内展示及贩卖他们的常规手工物品。协会举办这个市集的目的是为了保存及庆祝新墨西哥州的西班牙文化。

西班牙市集里的艺术家会利用各式各样不同的材料来制作成品。有些人会利用织布机编织布料或在钖上敲出自己的设计。其他人则会自制陶器或利用骨头雕刻物品。照片内与圣人娃娃一起入镜的艺术家,当地人称之为圣人制作家(santeros),过去数百年来,他们已经雕刻过无数的圣人娃娃,也为无数圣人娃娃上过色。现在的他们仍然利用生长在新墨西哥境内的树木来进行人物雕刻,如:杨木、杨木根、山杨及松树。首先,圣人制作家使用小刀来雕刻圣人娃娃,然后再用石膏粉 (浆糊的一种) 将它覆盖起来以备着色用。圣人制作家仍然使用自制颜料上色,如:木炭是制作黑色颜料的材料。待圣人制作家完成上色步骤后,他会涂上亮光漆来保护圣人娃娃。


Have you ever heard of bultos? The artist in this photograph poses with his bultos, -- brightly colored sculptures of saints or other religious figures. This artist is called an ultossantero (saint-maker) and is one of many at the Spanish Market in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

In 1926, the Spanish Colonial Arts Society started the Spanish Market for Hispanic artists to show and sell their traditional handmade objects. The Society began the Market to preserve and celebrate the Hispanic culture of New Mexico.

The artists of the Spanish Market work with many different kinds of materials. Some weave cloth on looms or punch designs into tin. Others make their own pottery or carve objects out of bone. The artist in this photograph poses with his bultos, which are brightly colored sculptures of saints or other religious figures. Local artists, called santeros (saint-makers), have carved and painted bultos for the past few hundred years. Today, they still carve the figures from the wood of trees that grow in New Mexico: cottonwood, cottonwood roots, aspen and pine. A santero carves a bulto with a knife and then covers it with gesso, a kind of paste, to prepare it for painting. Santeros still use paints from homemade pigments. For example, charcoal is used to make black paint. After a santero has finished painting, he applies a varnish to protect the bulto.

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