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Explore the States 内布拉斯加
 
Photo of man playing vibraphone
为向艾灵顿公爵(Duke Ellington)表示敬意,奥马哈爵士乐大师路易斯卫茨路易吉(Lewis Luigi Waites),当地人简称其为路易吉,正在弹奏电颤琴
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乔斯林艺术博物馆(Joslyn Art Museum):绿色草地上的爵士乐" 地方性遗产
照片中的男人正在弹奏电颤琴(vibraphone),您知道什么是电颤琴吗?

电颤琴是一种爵士乐乐器,于1920年左右发明的。它属于敲打乐器,所以音乐家必须以敲击或打击的方式使其发声。它看起来有点像是木琴,其上铺有调音完成的金属键,演奏者会使用一个毛毡制或木制拍打器敲击演奏。琴键会发出轻柔且圆润的声音,而琴键底下的共鸣器能增加声音的震动。此外,琴键及共鸣器之间的小型电扇能够引发颤音或抖音效果,乐器本身的名字就是取自于这些电扇所造成的颤音效果。

每年夏季,内布拉斯加奥马哈市的乔斯林艺术博物馆内,都有数以千计的人边聆听电颤琴,边享受爵士乐的美妙。爵士乐是19世纪晚期及20世纪早期时,由位于纽奥良、路易斯安那州、堪萨斯市、密苏里及其他城市内的非裔美国人音乐家所创。它与其他音乐最大的不同在于它的即兴创作特色。一般来说,音乐家会依照作曲家创作音乐当时的曲调演奏;然而,演奏爵士乐时,音乐家会以一首歌曲开头,接着进行即兴创作或边演奏边作曲,这也是同一首爵士歌曲每次听起来都不相同的原因。

 
The man in the photo is playing a vibraphone. Do you know what that is?

A vibraphone is a jazz instrument that was invented around 1920. It's a percussion instrument, so a musician must beat or strike it to make sounds. It looks a little like a xylophone and has tuned metal bars that a player hits with felt or wool beaters. Striking the bars makes a soft, mellow sound. Underneath the bars are "resonators," which add vibration to the sounds that are made. In addition, small electric fans between the bars and the resonators cause a vibrato, or trembling effect. These fans are what give the instrument its name.

Thousands of people can listen to a vibraphone as they enjoy jazz music every summer at the Joslyn Art Museum in Omaha, Nebraska. Jazz was invented by African American musicians in New Orleans, Louisiana, and Kansas City, Missouri, and other cities in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. What makes it different from other music is something called improvisation. Usually a composer writes music and a musician plays it exactly as it was written. With jazz, the musicians start with a song but then improvise, or start making music up as they go along. That is why many jazz songs never sound the same way twice.

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