第五讲 怎样做选择填空题
  一、题型介绍
  选择填空又称综合填空或完形测试,它是目前较为浒的一种英语测试题型之一。
  在我国其它的大规模英语考试中是一项必试项目。
  选择填空或完形测试的理论依据是完形心理学。这种理论的观点认为:人们在观察物体形状时,往往下意识地把不连贯的、窑的部分给补上,然后把它看成一个完整的形状。把这种理论应用到语言测试上,便出现了完形测试。这种试题设计程序为:命脉题人员首先选取一篇短文,然后每隔一定数目的单词(一般为5-11个)有规律地去掉一个词,最后,让考生填出去掉的那些词,来测试他们的语言应用能力。
  最初的这种完形测试方法是按固定比例来删词,后来又产生了几种新的变体。一种是删掉的词仅限于某一类语言现象,如动词、名词、介词等。这样原来隔固定词数删词的标准仅做参考;另一种是把综合填充和多项选择结合起来,试题设计者为每个空白处提供3-5个选择先项,让考生从中挑选出唯一正确的答案。这样既可达到所希望的测试目的,又可保证评分的客观性。这种测试形式是目前国内采用的最普遍的完形测试方式。英语等级考试C级试卷中采用的就是这种题型。
  选择填空的题目设计并非拿一篇短文来随便地去掉几个词。设计者遵循一定要求和准则,以保证测试的效度和信度。首先,选文的头一、两句应是完整的,不去掉任何词,以帮助考生进入语境。其次,原文的长度一般在300词左右,太长或太短都不合适。为了达到测试目的,可以灵活掌握隔多少个单词删去一个词,但是总体上要遵循每隔一定数目的单词去掉一个词这种原则。
二、选择填空的测试点
  根据等级纲,选择填空通常用由一篇300词左右的短文组成。短文中留有20个空格,每个空格为一题。我们还注意到,职称英语等级考试中删词的间隙较一般考试要大一些。这样,题目就相对容易了一些。这是因为破坏的信息量少了,所以恢复起来也就相对而言容易一些。通过对样题的分析,我们发现,补删的词几乎涉及到所有词类,如动词、名词、形容词、副词、代词、介词、连词、短语等等。
三、选择填空的解题方法
  表面上来年,选择填空就是要求考生把每个句子中删掉的词给恢复出来。实际上,选择填空不仅仅测试应试者在句子水平上运用语言的能力,它还测试应试者在语篇水平上综合运用语言的能力。因为,选择填空中的填空是与文章的上下文有紧密联系的,不是孤立的、不相关的。因此,要做好选择填空题,必须首先通读整篇文章,开清文章的大意和逻辑关系,根据空格所在句子的结构、语法、语篇等信息,通过逻辑揄、对比等手段最后确定答案。尤其是运用语法知识、搭配和语篇知识来确定答案。
请看这篇短文,文中有20处空白,每个空白处有4个选项。请根据短文的内容从4个选项中选择1个最佳答案。
   Television is the greatest communiction medium ever designed and operated by man. It sends into the human brain an -------- (36) amount of opinions and information and -------(37) moral and artistic standards for all of us. Every minute of a television programme teaches us something. It is never a neutral (中立的)------- (38). For example, how and when public issues ar -------(40) how they are treated by the television networks in entertainment --------(41) news and public affairs programmes.
What the American people think about governemnt and politics in -------(42), ad wwell as a favorite candidate in ------ (43), is largely influenced by ------- (44).
   Unfortunately commercial television seldom ------- (45) anything of value to our lives. Many Americans express a deep hostility (故意)--------(46) television because they know most TV programmes are ------- (47) poor quality and that sometimes these programmes are ever ------- (48). The question is : how can television be improved? There are many thins are ordinary ------- (49) can do. For example, he ----- (50) complain to his local TV stations about offensive advertising. He can ----- (51) citiaens groups to urge local TV stations to ----- (52) their programmes ----- (53), these groups should propose regular analysies of specific TV commercials and programmes by educators, doctors, etc. to ----- (54) the influence of these programmes on children and adults. Television can be our most exciting medium if we just think about ----- (55) to improve it.
36. A endless G ending C ended D end
37. A finds B absorbs C sets D mends
38. A consequence B influence C result D purpose
39. A talked B handled C watched D noticed
40. A over B in C above D on
41. A as well as B also C but D together
42. A all B short C general D name
43. A particular B special C instance D individual
44. A entertainment B news C programmes D television
45. A damages B contributes C hands D takes
46. A toward B in C on D over
47. A with B in C of D among
48. A serious B harmful C attractive D long
49. A reader B participant C listener D viewer
50. A can B does C should Dought to
51. A can B does C should D ought to
52. A call B gather C organize D make
53. A As a result B As a matter of fact C In contract DIn addition
54. A determine B refuse C involve D receive
55. A tracks B roads C easy D programmes
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