- B -

   "B" Round: A financing event whereby professional investors such as venture capitalists are sufficiently interested in a company to provide additional funds after the "A" round of financing. Subsequent rounds are called "C", "D", and so on.
   Balance Sheet: A condensed financial statement showing the nature and amount of a company's assets, liabilities, and capital on a given date.
   Bankruptcy: An inability to pay debts. Chapter 11 of the bankruptcy code deals with reorganization, which allows the debtor to remain in business and negotiate for a restructuring of debt.
   Barbell Strategy: Investment strategy by limited partners that primarily make commitments to buyout firms on (1) the micro/small and (2) the large/mega ends of the market; while mostly eschewing the vast array of middle-market opportunities.
   BATNA (best alternative to a negotiated agreement): A no-agreement alternative reflecting the course of action a party to a negotiation will take if the proposed deal is not possible.
   Bear Hug: An offer made directly to the Board of Directors of a target company. Usually made to increase the pressure on the target with the threat that a tender offer may follow.
   Benchmarking: Comparing returns of a portfolio to the returns of its peers; in private equity, fund performance is benchmarked against a sample of funds formed in the same vintage year with the same investment focus.
   Best Efforts: An offering in which the investment banker agrees to distribute as much of the offering as possible, and return any unsold shares to the issuer.
   Blue Sky Laws: A common term that refers to laws passed by various states to protect the public against securities fraud. The term originated when a judge ruled that a stock had as much value as a patch of blue sky.
   Book Value: Book value of a stock is determined from a company's balance sheet by adding all current and fixed assets and then deducting all debts, other liabilities and the liquidation price of any preferred issues. The sum arrived at is divided by the number of common shares outstanding and the result is book value per common share.
   Bootstrapping: Means of financing a small firm by employing highly creative ways of using and acquiring resources without raising equity from traditional sources or borrowing money from the bank.
   Bridge Financing: A limited amount of equity or short-term debt financing typically raised within 6-18 months of an anticipated public offering or private placement meant to "bridge" a company to the next round of financing.
   Broad-Based Weighted Average Ratchet: A type of anti-dilution mechanism. A weighted average ratchet adjusts downward the price per share of the preferred stock of investor A due to the issuance of new preferred shares to new investor B at a price lower than the price investor A originally received. Investor A's preferred stock is repriced to a weighed average of investor A's price and investor B's price. A broad-based ratchet uses all common stock outstanding on a fully diluted basis (including all convertible securities, warrants and options) in the denominator of the formula for determining the new weighed average price. Compare Narrow-Based Weighted Average ratchet and Chapter 2.9.4.d.ii of the Encyclopedia.
   Brokers: Private individuals or firms retained by early-stage companies to raise funds for a finder's fee. (compare, broker-dealer)
   Burn Out / Cram Down: Extraordinary dilution, by reason of a round of financing, of a non-participating investor's percentage ownership in the issuer.
   Burn Rate: The rate at which a company expends net cash over a certain period, usually a month.
   Business Development Company (BDC): A vehicle established by Congress to allow smaller, retail investors to participate in and benefit from investing in small private businesses as well as the revitalization of larger private companies.
   Business Plan: A document that describes the entrepreneur's idea, the market problem, proposed solution, business and revenue models, marketing strategy, technology, company profile, competitive landscape, as well as financial data for coming years. The business plan opens with a brief executive summary, most probably the most important element of the document due to the time constraints of venture capital funds and angels.