Competition
When two or more companies market similar products to the same customers in a free and open market.

竞争来源:考
当两家以上的公司在自由开放的市场上向同一客户生产相同产品时就产生竞争。

Free and Open Market
Market in which price is freely determined by supply and demand.

自由开放的市场
价格完全由供求决定的市场。

Controlled Market
Market in which price, supply, and demand are artificially controlled. Opposite of a free and open market.

受控市场来源:考
价格和供求受到人为控制的市场。与自由开放的市场相对。

Supply and Demand
Demand is quantity of a product that consumers will buy at a certain price. Supply is the quantity of the product available at that price.

供给和需求来源:考
需求是消费者愿意按照某一价格购买产品的数量。供给是此价格上可以得到的产品的数量。

Monopoly
When a company has exclusive control over the market for a product. or when there are many buyers but only one seller.

垄断来源:考
某一公司的某产品完全控制了市场。或有许多买家,但是只有一家卖家。

Antitrust
Government opposition to monopolies in the interest of competition. Established in the U.S. in 1890 by the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.

反托拉斯来源:考
政府为了实现竞争而对垄断的限制。1890年在美国制定了谢尔曼反托拉斯法案。

Tariff
A tax or duty imposed by a government on imported goods.

关税
政府对进口货物征收的税收。

Dumping
selling products, through unfair competitive practices, in a foreign market at a price below that of the domestic market.

倾销来源:考
通过不正当竞争,以低于国内市场的价格向国外市场销售产品。