本期重点:主谓一致 

当句子本身较长,主语与谓语之间有其他插入成分时,往往会出现主谓不一致的情况;另一情况就是如果主语不是通常的代词和名词,而是从句、非谓语动词短语或者是一些特殊的短语等,也会出现主谓不一致的问题. 

考点例析:

例1:There is therefore a need for resources and methods of
teaching that facilitates a deep understanding of science in ________
an enjoyable way. (2006 .12)

解析:这句话that引导的是一个定语从句,在找错误前首先要了解先行词究竟是哪个(teaching,resources and methods还是need?)。根据意思,应该是“教学资源和教学方法使得对科学的深刻了解变得更容易”,所以这个定语从句的先行词应该是resources and methods,of teaching只是作resources and methods的定语。先行词是复数,从句的谓语也应该用复数形式,所以将facilitates改为facilitate。

例2:Whether women who have started a career will attain
pay equality with men rest on at least two factors. _________ (1996. 1)

解析:这个句子的主语是Whether women who have started a career will attain pay equality with men,谓语是rest,单个从句作主语时,谓语动词要用单数,所以将rest改为rests。

例3:The whole monstrous growth rests on economic prosperity, but
behind it lies two myths: the myth of the city as a promised _________
land and the myth of the country as a Garden of Eden. (2002 . 6)

解析:behind it lies two myths这个句子是倒装句,真正的主语是two myths,所以谓语动词lies改为lie。

例4:Any attempt to trace the development from the noises babies
make to their first spoken words lead to considerable difficulties. _________

解析:这样的长句子首先要找出主谓部分。Any attempt是主语,to trace the development from the noises是attempt的定语,babies make to their first spoken words则是做定语从句修饰noises,那么这个句子的谓语就是lead了。主语any attempt是单数,所以谓语也要改成单数leads。

综合训练

The joyous Mid-Autumn Festival is celebrated on the fifteenth
day of the eighth moon, around the time of the autumn equinox(秋分).
Many refer it simply as the "Fifteenth of the Eighth Moon". This day ___1____
is also considered a harvest festival because that fruits, vegetables and ___2____
grain have been harvested by this time and food is unabundant. With ___3____
delinquent accounts settled prior to the festival , it is a time for relax ___4___
and celebration. Together with the celebration there appears some ___5___
special customs in different parts. However, the custom of playing under
the moon is not so popular as it used to be nowadays, and it is not less ___6___
popular to enjoy the bright silver moon. Whenever the festival sets in,
people will look up at the full silver moon, drinking wine to celebrate
their happy life or thinking of their relative and friends far from home. ____7___
The round moon cakes, measuring about three inches in diameter and
one and a half inches in thickness, resembles Western fruitcakes in taste ____8____
and consistency. But nowadays, there are hundreds varieties of moon cakes __9___
on sale a month before the arrival of Moon Festival. For generations, moon
cakes have been made with sweet fillings of nuts, mashed red beans,
lotus-seed paste or Chinese dates(枣子), wrapped in a pastry.
Sometimes a cooked egg yolk can be found in the middle of the rich tasting
dessert. People compare moon cakes to the plum pudding and fruit cakes ___10___
are served in the English holiday seasons .

参考答案及解析:

1. refer后加to
固定搭配refer to…as…,意为“把…称作…”。

2. that -> /
Because表示原因后接从句时不需加that。

3. unabundant -> abundant
根据上文已经说了中秋节也被认为是丰收节,所以食物应该是很丰富的,故将unabundant改为abundant。

4. relax -> relaxation
relax是动词,此处需要名词作for的宾语,所以将relax改成相应的名词relaxation。

5. appears -> appear
这句话是倒装句,真正的主语是后面的some special customs,所以谓语动词要用复数形式。

6. and -> but

7. relative -> relatives

8. resembles -> resemble
这句话的主语是the round moon cakes,所以将谓语动词resembles改为resemble。

9. hundreds后加of
固定搭配hundreds of“成百上千的”。

10. cakes后加which或that
这句话出现了compare和are served两个谓语,根据句子的意思compare才是真正的谓语,而are served….则应该是修饰cakes的定语从句,又因为从句缺少主语,所以加上that或which。