To understand the marketing concept, it is only necessary to understand the difference between marketing and selling. Not too many years ago, most industries concentrated primarily on the efficient production of goods, and then relied on "persuasive salesmanship" to move as much of these goods as possible. Such production and selling focuses on the needs of the seller to produce goods and then convert them into money.

Marketing, on the other hand, focuses on the wants of consumers. It begins with first analyzing the preferences and demands of consumers and then producing goods that will satisfy them. This eye-on-the-consumer approach is known as the marketing concept, which simply means that instead of trying to sell whatever is easiest to produce or buy for resale, the makers and dealers first endeavor to find out what the consumer wants to buy and then go about making it available for purchase.


    This concept does not imply that business is benevolent(慈善的)or that consumer satisfaction is given priority over profit in a company. There are always two sides to every business transaction - the firm and the customer -and each must be satisfied before trade occurs. Successful merchants and producers, however, recognize that the surest route to profit is through understanding and catering to customers. A striking example of the importance of catering to the consumer presented itself in mid-1985, when Coca Cola changed the flavor of its drink. The non-acceptance of the new flavor by a significant portion of the public brought about a prompt restoration of the Classic Coke, which was then marketed alongside the new. King Customer ruled!


26.The marketing concept discussed in the passage is, in essence,_______.

   A) the practice of turning goods into money

   B) making goods available for purchase

   C) the customer - centred approach

   D) a form of persuasive salesmanship

注:原文第三段,cater to customer基于客户的,AB是两者共同特征,D对应第一段selling


27.What was the main concern of industrialists before the marketing concept was widely accepted?

   A) The needs of the market.

   B) The efficiency of production.

   C) The satisfaction of the user.

   D) The preferences of the dealer.



28.According to the passage, “to move as much of these goods as possible” (Lines 3 -4 ), Para. I) means “_______”.

   A) to sell the largest possible amount of goods

   B) to transport goods as efficiently as possible

   C) to dispose of these goods in large quantities

   D) to redesign these goods for large - scale production


29.What does the restoration of the Classic Coke best illustrate?

   A) Traditional goods have a stronger appeal to the majority of people.

   B) It takes time for a new product to be accepted by the public.

   C) Consumers with conservative tastes are often difficult to please.

   D) Products must be designed to suit the taste of the consumer.


30.In discussing the marketing concept, the author focuses on_______.

   A) its main characteristic

   B) its social impact

   C) its possible consequence

   D) its theoretical basis

注:写作方法题。答题要问What? 能回答,选项是对的。本文讲市场营销的特点。


33. The word "dubious" ( L. 2, Para. 2) most probably means

A) valuable

B) useful         
C) doubtful       
D) helpful


        Yet you will fine little if anything written on what it is to be an employee. You can find a great deal of very dubious advice on how to get a job or how to get a promotion. You can also find a good deal of work in a chosen field, whether it be the mechanist' s trade or bookkeeping (簿记). Every one of these trades requires different skills, sets different standards, and requires a different preparation. Yet they all have employeeship in common. And increasingly, especially in the large business or in government, employeeship is more important to success than the special professional knowledge or skill. Certainly more people fail because they do not know the requirements of being an employee than because they do not adequately possess the skills of their trade; the higher you climb the ladder, the more you get into administrative or executive work, the greater the emphasis on ability to work within the organization rather than on technical abilities or professional knowledge.

24. The word "hassles" in the passage (Line 3, Para. 3) probably means _____.
(A) quarrels
(B) worries
(C) disadvantages
(D) agreements

        Living at home, says Knighton, a school teacher, continues to give her security and moral support. Her mother agreed, "It's ridiculous for the kids to pay all that money for rent. It makes sense for kids to stay at home." But sharing the family home requires adjustments for all. There are the hassles over bathrooms, telephones and privacy (不受干扰的生活). Some families, however, manage the delicate balancing act. But for others, it proves too difficult. Michelle Del Turco, 24, has been home three times-and left three times. "What I considered a social drink, my dad considered an alcohol problem, " she explains. "He never liked anyone I dated (约会), so I either had to hide away or meet them at friends' house."
34. The word "subjects" (Line 1, Para. 4) refers to _____.
(A) the performance tests used in the study of sleep deficit
(B) special branches of knowledge that are being studied
(C) people whose behavior or reactions are being studied
(D) the psychological consequences of sleep deficit


        To determine the consequences of sleep deficit, researchers have put subjects through a set of psychological and performance tests requiring them, for instance, to add columns of numbers or recall a passage read to them only minutes earlier. "We've found that if you're in sleep deficit, performance suffers, " says Dr. David. "Short-term memory is weakened, as are abilities to make decisions and to concentrate."

37. To "live a completely sedentary life-style" (Line 7, Para. 1) in the passage means _____.
(A) to "live a decent life"
(B) to "live an inactive life"
(C) to "live a life of vice"
(D) to "live a life with complete freedom"