「句1」Language is shaped by, and shapes ,human thought.

  [译文]人的思想形成了语言,而语言又形成了人的思想。

  [分析]“human thought”既是“by”。的介词宾语,又是“shapes”的宾语。

  「句2」这对真正理解这本书十分重要。

  [译文]This is fundamental to a true understanding of the book.

  [分析]“fundamental”的意思就是十分重要的,不许要加修饰词了这种词称为不是最高级的最高级,还有basic,major,original 等等。

  段子:

  方言是不是应该让位给普通话呢?我觉得,一种语言有没有生命力,能不能活在大家的口齿之间,是它在我们生活中有没有“用武之地”,有没有让它施展才华的空间;不是我们认为什么应该,什么不应该的问题。中华民族各籍贯各有其“母语”,然而若没有一个共同的语言,各说各话,当然是不行的。有了共同的语言,却不等于它就必然会生机蓬勃地活下去。

  译文:

  Should dialects give way to Mandarin? I think this is not the issue. A language that is often spoken and used widely by people in everyday life will flourish. Chinese speak many dialects (mother tongues) and there must be a single language for them to communicate effectively. Yet the existence of a common language does not mean that it will necessarily thrive.