《圣经》是西方世界的历史、社会和文化的集中反映, 圣经中的一些语言已经渗透到英语的日常生活用语当中。了解这些语言,将有助于我们更好地与西方人交流,也会帮助我们更好地理解英美文学作品。
我们就圣经中特有的表达方式作了如下分类,与大家共享。叙述是按“名句——出处——与之相关的句、段——释义——例句”的顺序安排的。

一、运用《圣经》中特指的动物进行表述。

1、A little bird told me. 一只小鸟告诉我。

From:The Book of Ecclesiastes《传道书》

Do not curse the king, even in your thought; do not curse the rich, even in your bedroom; for a bird of the air may carry your voice, and a bird in flight may tell the matter.

此言喻为“有人(私下)告诉我,消息不胫而走”。

Example:

How do you know this information?

你怎么知道这个消息的?

A little bird told me.

反正有人告诉我。

2、The leopard won't change its spots. 豹子不会改变身上的斑点。

From: The Book of Jeremiah《耶利米书》

Can the Ethiopian change his skin, or the leopard its spots? Then may ye also do good, that are accustomed to do evil. Therefore I will scatter them like stubble that passes away by the wind of the wilderness.

此言喻指“本性难改”。

Example: I think Jim will reform himself, but Tom won't, as a leopard won't change its spots.

我认为吉姆会改过自新,但汤姆本性难改。

3. Balaam's donkey 巴兰的驴

From: The Book of Numbers《民数记》

So the donkey said to Balaam, "Am I not your donkey on which you have ridden, ever since I became yours, to this day? Was I ever disposed to do this to you?"

此言喻指“平素沉默驯服而突然提出抗议的人”。

Example: I don't think Jim is Balaam's donkey.

我认为吉姆不会是提出反驳的人。

4. a lion in the road 道上有狮子

From: The Book of Proverbs 《箴言》

Do you see a man wise in his own eyes? There is more hope for a fool than for him. The lazy man says, "There is a lion in the road! A fierce lion is in the streets!"

此言喻指“拦路虎,可怕的障碍”等。

Example: A lion in the road, so he didn't pass the examination.

因遇难题, 他未能通过考试。

5. bull of Bashan 巴珊的公牛

From: The Book of Psalms《诗篇》

I was cast upon you from birth. From my mother's womb you have been my God. Be not far from me, for trouble is near; for there is none to help. Many bulls have surrounded me; strong bulls of Bashan have encircled me.

此言喻指“凶猛的敌人,艰难险阻”。

Example: Mr. Read had two bulls of Bashan when he was at junior school: Chinese and English.

李特先生上初中时感到困难的学科有两门:语文和英语。

6. sheep that have no shepherd 没有牧人的羊群

From: The First Book of Kings 《列王记(上)》

I saw all Israel scattered on the mountains, like sheep that have no shepherd. And the Lord said, "These have no master. Let each of them return to his house in peace."

此言喻指“群龙无首,没有领头人的群众”。

Example: Our group is like sheep having no shepherd in this match.

我们组在这次比赛中就像没有牧人的羊群一样(形容无依无靠或像一盘散沙)。

二、运用《圣经》中特指的人物进行表述。

1. Adam and Eve 亚当和夏娃

From: The Book of Genesis《创世记》

And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.

Then the rib which the Lord God had taken from the man He made into a woman and brought her to the man.

此言喻指“祖先,人类始祖”。

Example: Tom's grandma lived to be over a hundred — lived to be Adam and Eve, as they say.

汤姆的奶奶活到一百多岁——像别人说的,都活成老祖宗了。

2. Lot's wife 罗德的妻子

From: The Book of Genesis《创世记》

When the Lord began to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah, he sent two angels to urge the good man Lot and his family to flee and warned them not to turn their head in flight. But too curious to see what was happening to her home city, his wife looked back behind him, and she became a pillar of salt.(其中Sodom和Gomorrah均是因居民罪恶深重而被上帝焚毁的古城)

此言喻为“过分好奇的人”。

Example: Curious as Lot's wife, Helen can't get along well with her classmates.

海伦好奇心过重,不能与同班同学很好相处。

3. Saul and David 扫罗和大卫

From: The Book of Samuel《撒母耳记》

In the battle with the Philistines, David killed many with stones. On his triumphant return, women sang “Saul has slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands,” which made Saul the king very jealous.

此言喻指“不可同日而语,有天壤之别”。

Example: Compared with John, I did very little indeed. Saul has slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands.

与约翰相比,我做得实在太少。 我的这点儿不足挂齿,约翰才是功不可没。

4. Moses 摩西

From: The Book of Exodus《出埃及记》

Moses led the Jews out of Egypt.

此言喻指“领导者,领袖”。

Example: In this war, you are our Moses.

在这次战争中,你是我们的最高统帅。

5. Samaritan 撒马利亚人

From: The Gospel According to Luke《路加福音》

But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he was: and when he saw him, he had compassion on him. And went to him, and bound up his wounds, pouring on oil and wine, and set him on his own beast, and brought him to an inn, and took care of him.

此言喻指“乐善好施者”。

Example: This poor man begged, “You good Samaritans, have pity on me!”

这个穷人哀求道:“乐善好施的人们,可怜可怜我吧!”

三、运用特指的建筑物名称、地名、城市名等进行表述。

1. Garden of Eden 伊甸园

From: The Book of Genesis 《创世纪》

Then the Lord God took the man and put him in the Garden of Eden to tend and keep it. And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, "Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die."

此言喻为“人间天堂、乐园”。

Example: This place is thought the Garden of Eden by young people.

在年轻人看来,这个地方是他们的伊甸园。

2. Tower of Babel 巴别塔

From: The Book of Genesis 《创世纪》

So the Lord scattered them abroad from there over the face of all the earth, and they ceased building the city. Therefore its name is called Babel, because there the Lord confused the language of the earth; and from there the Lord scattered them abroad over the face of all the earth.

此言喻指“空想、空中楼阁”。

Example: They think Mike's plan is the tower of Babel.

他们认为迈克的计划是空想。

3. a land flowing with milk and honey

流奶与蜜之地

From: The Book of Exodus 《出埃及记》

So I have come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up from that land to a good and large land, to a land flowing with milk and honey.

此言喻为“富饶之地”。

Example: His hometown is considered to be a nice place, a land flowing with milk and honey.

人们认为他的家乡是一个美丽富饶的地方。

四、运用特指的日常生活用品进行表述。

1. Aaron's rod 亚伦的杖

From: The Book of Exodus 《出埃及记》

"And you shall write Aaron's name on the rod of Levi, for there shall be one rod for the head of each father's house."

此言喻为“大权在握”。

Example: What do you want if you are given Aaron's rod?

如果你大权在握,你想要什么?

2. a widow's cruse 寡妇的坛子

From: The Book of Kings 《列王记》

And she said, "Your maidservant has nothing in the house, but a jar of oil." Then he (Elisha) said, "Go, borrow vessels from everywhere, from all your neighbors ?empty vessels; do not gather just a few. ... then pour it into all those vessels, and set aside the full ones."

此言喻为“貌似有限但取之不竭的财源”。

Example: In Susan's courtyard, the little well is a widow's cruse, which never dries, even in the severe season of drought.

苏姗家院子里的小井有着取之不尽的水,再干旱的季节都不会干涸。

3. coat of many colors 彩衣

From: The Book of Genesis 《创世纪》

Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his children, because he was the son of his old age, and he made him a coat of many colors.

此言喻为“恩宠”。

Example: In our classroom, Liu Tao is the one wearing a coat of many colors before our teacher.

在我们班里,刘涛可是我们老师最喜爱的学生。

五、两种熟悉的事物合用,表述一种含义。

1. pillar of cloud and pillar of fire 云柱和火柱

From: The Book of Exodus 《出埃及记》

And the Lord went before them by day in a pillar of cloud to lead the way, and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, so as to go by day and night.

此言喻为“指路明灯”。

Example: Jane regard her teachers as pillars of cloud and pillars of fire in her life.

珍妮把她的老师们当作自己人生的指路明灯。

2. loaves and fishes 面包和鱼

From: The Gospel According to John 《约翰福音》

And when they found Him on the other side of the sea, they said to Him, "Rabbi, when did You come here?" Jesus answered them and said, "Most assuredly, I tell you, you seek me, not because you saw signs, but because you ate of the loaves and were filled."

此言喻为“物质利益、实惠、好处”。

Example: They seek office, not to be useful to the state, but for the loaves and fishes.

他们谋求公职,不是为了对国家有用,而是为了个人私利。

3. dove and olive leaf 鸽子和橄榄枝

From: The Book of Genesis《创世纪》

And he waited yet another seven days, and again he sent the dove out from the ark. Then the dove came to him in the evening, and behold, a freshly plucked olive leaf was in her mouth; and Noah knew that the waters had receded from the earth.

此言喻为“和平、和解”。

Example: They are flying flag of dove and olive leaf instead of war.

他们提出要和平,而不要战争。