注:《十诫》选自《旧约》的“申命记”(Deuteronomy)。中世纪以来,在基督教教会的极力推行下,“十诫”成为传统西方社会的道德准则,对西方文化产生了深远的影响。如果把它的具体内容同中国文化的传统价值观作一比较,我们不难发现它们之间存在着明显的异同。一方面,中西文化泾渭分明。前者表现出入世的、宽容的特征,如孔子不谈“怪、力、乱、神”,中国人“见神就拜”,相信“八仙过海,各显神通”;后者则表现出强烈的出世与排他倾向,这一点在第1—4诫中可以看出。另一方面,中西文化也具有共同的道德追求,第5—10诫可以为证。当然,当代中西文化均已发生很大变化,这一点,还望读者明察。

Moses called together all the people of Israel and said to them, "People of Israel, listen to all the laws that I am giving you today. Learn them and be sure that you obey them. At Mount Sinai the Lord our God made a covenant, not only with our fathers, but with all of us who are living today. There on the mountain the Lord spoke to you face-to-face from the fire. I stood between you and the Lord at that time to tell you what he said, because you were afraid of the fire and would not go up the mountain.

"The Lord said, 'I'm the Lord your God, who rescued you from Egypt, where you were slaves.

"'Worship no god but me."

"'Do not make for yourselves images of anything in heaven or on earth or in the water under the earth. Do not bow down to any idol or worship it, for I am the Lord your God and I tolerate no rivals. I bring punishment on those who hate me and on their descendants down to the third and fourth generation. But I show my love to thousands of generations of those who love me and obey my laws."

"'Do not use my name for evil purposes, for I, the Lord your God, will punish anyone who misuses my name."

"'Observe the Sabbath and keep it holy, as I, the Lord your God, have commanded you. You have six days in which to do your work, but the seventh day is a day of rest dedicated to me. On that day no one is to work—neither you, your children, your slaves, your animals, nor the foreigners who live in your country. Your slaves must rest just as you do. Remember that you were slaves in Egypt, and that I, the Lord your God, rescued you by my great power and strength. That is why I command you to observe the Sabbath."

"'Respect your father and your mother, as I, the Lord your God, command you, so that all may go well with you and so that you may live a long time in the land that I am giving you."

"'Do not commit murder."

"'Do not commit adultery."

"'Do not steal."

"'Do not accuse anyone falsely."

"'Do not desire another man's wife; do not desire his house, his land, his slaves, his cattle, his donkeys, or anything else that he owns.'

"These are the commandments the Lord gave to all of you when you were gathered at the mountain. When he spoke with a mighty voice from the fire and from the thick clouds, he gave these commandments and no others. Then he wrote them on two stone tablets and gave them to me."

摩西召集所有以色列人,对他们说:“以色列人哪,注意听我今天给你们立下的所有戒律。你们要好好学习,谨遵信守。在西奈山上,我主上帝不仅与我们的先父,而且与我们今天活着的所有人立下圣约。就在那座山上,主从火中面对面向你们讲话。那时,因为你们害怕火焰,不敢上山,我就站在你们和主之间向你们传达他的旨意。 “主说:‘我是主,你们的上帝;是我把你们从埃及的奴役下拯救出来。

“‘除我以外,不许拜任何其他的神。

“‘不许为自己设立任何天上或地上或水中万物的图像。不许向任何偶像下跪或崇拜它,因为我是主,你们的上帝,而且我决不宽容任何对手。恨我的人,我必惩罚他们,自父及子,直到第三、第四代。但是,爱我并服从我的戒律的人,我将赐爱于他们子孙万代。

“‘不许以我的名义作恶,因为我——主,你们的上帝——将惩罚任何乱用我的名字的人。 “‘守安息日为圣日,这是我——主,你们的上帝——的旨意。你们有六天的时间可以做工,但第七天是献给我的休息日。这一天,谁也不能做工——无论是你们、你们的儿女、你们的奴仆、你们的牲畜,还是侨居你们国家的外邦人。你们的奴仆必须和你们一样休息。要记住,你们曾在埃及为奴;是我——主,你们的上帝——用我的伟力拯救了你们。这就是为什么我要你们守安息日。

“‘尊重父母,这是我——主,你们的上帝——的旨意;这样,你们在我赐予你们的土地上便会万事如意,延年益寿。

“‘不许杀人。

“‘不许奸淫。

“‘不许偷窃。

“‘不许陷害他人。

“‘不许贪图他人的妻子;不许贪图他人的房子、田地、奴仆、牛、驴或任何属于他人的财物。’

“这些就是主在你们聚集山上时给你们所有人下达的戒律。当他从火中、从浓云中用洪亮的声音讲话时,他给你们的不是别的,正是这些戒律。随后,他把这些戒律刻在两块石牌上,交给了我。”