1. Kung Fu功夫

S: Student MT: Martial arts teacher

S: Hi, I hope you can help me. I want to get fit, but I hate going to the gym. I want to try something different, any ideas?

MT: What about Kung Fu?

S: Like in a Jackie Chan movie? I don’t know ...

MT: There’s much more to Kung Fu than Jackie Chan or Bruce Lee. Kung Fu is an art form and also, very good for you.

S: OK, tell me more.

MT: Many styles of Kung Fu are based on the ideas of nature. Ancient boxing masters often developed their fighting techniques by observing the world around them. Animals, birds, and insects provided the basis for many systems of Kung Fu developed in the past.

S: So, I could learn to fight like a bird?

MT: Kind of ... there are many different styles but they take years to master.

S: What about Shaolin? How is that linked?

MT: Many of the hard forms of Kung Fu came from a Buddhist Monastery called “Shaolin”. An Indian priest named Tamo came to live there nearly 1500 years ago. According to legend, Tamo arrived at the monastery where he found the monks in poor physical condition. Because they couldn’t stay awake during meditation, Tamo introduced a series of 18 exercises designed to feed both body and mind. These movements are said to have merged with self-defense tactics studied in the Shaolin Temple.

S: I see. But I thought you said there were many types?

MT: Yes, later, in the 13th century, they were extended to 72 forms by Jueyuan the Monk. He traveled around China and met two other skilled fighters. They further extended the forms to 173 and classified them into 5 animal forms: dragon, tiger, leopard, crane and snake. That?s how we get Shaolin Kung Fu’s “Five Form Fist”.

S: Sounds special. But I don’t want to be too violent.

MT: Then I suggest a soft form of Kung Fu, called Tai Qi. It comes from Taoism and it’s very good for your health. Through its training, you can get inner peace and a sense of physical and emotional well being. It’s often called Chinese Yoga: the art and science of meditation through movement.

S: OK, great!


S:学生MT:武术老师

S:你好,我希望你能帮我个忙。我想有个好身体,可是又讨厌去健身房。我想试试其他办法,有什么好主意?

MT:功夫怎么样?

S:像成龙演的电影里面那样?我不太懂……

MT:功夫并不只是指成龙或李小龙,它是一种艺术形式,而且对你很有好处。

S:好的,详细说说。

MT:很多功夫招式来源于对自然界的想象。古代拳术大师常常通过观察他们周围的世界改进拳术技法。动物、鸟类和昆虫为过去很多功夫的系统发展提供了基础。

S:那我能学像鸟那样的打架招势吗?

MT:差不多吧……有很多不同的招势,但都需要很多年才能练好。

S:少林武术怎么样?它跟什么有关系?

MT:很多硬功夫都出自叫“少林”的佛教寺庙。大约1500年前,有个叫达摩的印度僧人来到这里。传说他来到寺庙,发现那里的和尚身体状况很不好。因为他们在坐禅时不能保持清醒,达摩就传授给他们一套十八手拳法,目的是锻炼他们的身心。据说这些动作融合了他在少林寺研究的防身术。

S:我明白了。但是我记得你说过有很多种招势?

MT:是的,后来在13世纪,觉远和尚*把这些动作扩大到72手。他到中国各地旅游,遇到了两个武艺高强的人。他们进一步把招势扩大到173手,按动物种类分成5类形态:龙、虎、豹、鹤和蛇。这就是我们现在少林功夫中“五形拳”的由来。

S:听起来很特别。不过我不想变得太暴力。

MT:那我建议你学习一种温和的功夫,叫太极拳。它源于道教,对你的健康非常有好处。通过这种训练,你能达到内心的平和,以及身体和情绪上的安宁舒适。它经常被人们称作中国瑜珈:通过运动达到沉思冥想的一种艺术和科学。

S:不错,太好了


注释:觉远和尚:金末元初,少林寺僧人觉远和尚离寺云游,欲访天下武功高手。他先后结识了兰州的李叟和洛阳的白玉峰。三人同回少林寺,一起对少林寺所演练的数百个拳械套路进行了系统整理。觉远和尚把少林寺镇寺之宝罗汉手增加到173手。白玉峰则撰写了《五拳精要》一书,并皈依少林寺为僧,法号秋月。


2.Rain 雨

S: Shopper M: Music shop owner

S: Hi, would it be possible for you to give me a hand? I’m looking for South Korean pop.

M: Yes, no problem. The section is over here, we have material by BoA, Se7en and Rain.

S: Rain! That’s what I’m looking for, my friend bought me a CD of his and now I can’t stop listening to it!

M: He’s really popular, we call him “The South Korean King of Pop”. He’s huge in Japan, Hong Kong, China, Thailand and across much of Asia.

S: Really? I had no idea. Why do you think he’s so popular?

M: Well, it’s a combination of his angelic face, great body and Justin Timberlake style dance moves. He stars in soap operas as well as being a singer.

S: I see. Do you know more about him?

M: Actually, yes. I’m a big fan, you see. He’s 23, his real name is Ji Hoon Jung and he used to be poor. He lived in Seoul in a one room apartment, but dreamed of being famous. He must have pushed himself very hard to get where he is today.

S: Yes, many famous people come from humble beginnings.

M: Did you know he was listed on Time magazines “World’s Most Influential People” list?

S: Really? I guess he must have a lot of influence in South Korea, maybe throughout Asia. Through his music, soaps and so on.

M: He plans to star in a movie next year but he says he has no desire to be in a big budget film. Maybe that’s because he was a soap actor.

S: Probably. Do you think he will ever be famous in the West?

M: I hope so. At the moment he’s studying English day and night because he wants to become famous in America. Before he visited the U?S., Rain already had a fan base, thanks to Internet music sites, satellite TV and DVDs of his soap operas. He’s also had two sell out concerts in the small venue at Madison Square Garden.

S: Oh, so he’s pretty popular over there already then?

M: Yes. And he’s releasing an English language album later this year.

S: Great! Now I will be able to understand his songs!

M: That’s true.


S:顾客M:唱片店主

S:你好,能帮我个忙吗?我想买韩国流行歌曲。

M:好的,没问题。流行歌曲在那边,我们有宝儿、Se7en和雨的唱片。

S:雨!我就是要找他的唱片,我朋友给我买了一张他的CD,现在我听得爱不释手。

M:他非常受欢迎,我们叫他“韩国流行歌王”。他在日本、香港、中国、泰国和亚洲很多国家都很有名。

S:真的吗?我不知道。你觉得他为什么那么受欢迎?

M:是这样,他长得纯真可爱,身材健美,会跳贾斯汀·汀布莱克式的舞蹈。还在很多电视剧中担任主角和歌手。

S:我知道。那你还了解什么更多的信息吗?

M:当然了解。你知道,我是他的大粉丝。他23岁,真名叫郑智薰,过去很穷。他住在首尔的一套一居室公寓里,但梦想成为名人。他肯定是不断鞭策自己才取得今天这样的成就。

S:是的,很多名人都出身贫寒。

M:他被列入《时代周刊》“世界上最有影响力的人物”排行榜,你知道这个吗?

S:真的吗?我想他在韩国的影响一定很大,也许遍及整个亚洲。包括他的唱片、电视剧等等。

M:他计划明年在一部电影中担任主角,但他说不想演预算投入太大的电影。这也许是因为他是个电视剧演员的缘故吧。

S:有这种可能。你认为他在西方国家也会成名吗?

M:我希望如此。他正在日夜学习英语,因为他想在美国成名。凭借互联网音乐网站、卫星电视和他拍的电视剧的DVD,他在去美国之前已经拥有了自己的粉丝团。此外,他还在麦迪逊广场花园的小球馆举办了两场音乐会,全部爆满。

S:噢,那他现在是不是在那边已经很红了?

M:是的,而且他今年下半年就要发行英文专辑。

S:太好了!那样我就能听懂他的歌曲了。


3.Cowboys 牛仔

S1: Student 1S2: Student 2

S1: I want to write about something which is truly American, what do you think? A president or a businessman?

S2: Neither, you should write about cowboys. They are a true symbol of the USA.

S1: Like in the movies?

S2: No, the life of a cowboy was anything but glamorous—it entailed hard work and long, lonesome hours.

S1: What about the clothes? Do they really wear jeans, cowboy boots and Stetson hats?

S2: Cowboy clothing is an everyday part of their wardrobes. Today they are remembered in “Spaghetti Westerns”, movies and TV shows which started a craze during the 1950s and 60s. Some are still popular today, but most people’s attraction shifted to space travel, maybe because of the moon landing in 1969.

S1: Many country and western songs try to capture the true cowboy spirit. This fascination with the “Old West” is still popular today. I think lots of Americans like country and western music. But you think movies, music and television tells us nothing about the true cowboy?

S2: Yes, but music especially has made cowboys more and more popular. The cowboy’s real job isn’t singing though, it’s looking after cattle. Hence the name “cowboy”.

S1: The cowboy’s reign in the Wild West was quite short, about 30 years, why are they such a big part of American history?

S2: Well, when the Civil War ended, many of the soldiers had no home to return to and started drifting to the West on horseback.

S1: I see, then ranch owners hired these hard working men as ranch hands and they were the first cowboys.

S2: And when the time came to sell the beef, the hands would round-up the cattle from the open prairie and take them to market.

S1: So why was their reign in the Wild West so short?

S2: It was short because the West stopped being wild. Barbed wire was invented and soon it was almost impossible to roam around freely as they had done before.

S1: So as Western America developed, the cowboys’ jobs became less and less. Nowadays no one thinks of these original cowboys, only the ones we see in the movies.

S1:学生1 S2:学生2

S1:我想写点真正属于美国的东西,你认为该写些什么呢?写总统还是商人?
S2:都不好,你应该写美国牛仔。他们才是真正能代表美国的象征。
S1:就像电影里演的那样吗?
S2:不是,牛仔的生活一点也不诱人——他们必须承受繁重的劳动和长期的寂寞孤独。
S1:那衣服呢?他们是真的都穿牛仔服、牛仔靴,戴宽边帽吗?
S2:牛仔服就是他们的日常服饰。今天他们留给人们的记忆仍然是他们在意大利式西部片*中的形象。正是这些影视作品在上世纪五六十年代引发了一阵热潮。直到今天有些这样的影片还是很受欢迎,但后来大多数人把注意力转移到了太空旅行,这大概是因为1969年的登月事件吧。
S1:很多乡村音乐和西部歌曲都试图表现真正的牛仔精神。这种对“老西部”的迷恋至今仍然还很流行。我觉得很多美国人都喜欢乡村音乐和西部音乐。可是,你认为电影、音乐和电视并没有表现出真正的牛仔,对不对?
S2:是的,尤其是音乐,它们让西部牛仔变得越来越有名。不过,牛仔真正的工作并不是唱歌那么轻松,而是照看牛群,所以他们才被叫做“牛仔”。
S1:牛仔在美国蛮荒的西部活动的时间并不长,大约是30年。为什么他们在美国历史上那么重要呢?
S2:是这样,内战结束时,很多士兵都无家可归,于是他们就骑着马漂泊到了西部地区。
S1:我知道了,那里的大牧场主就雇佣这些勤劳的人做牧场的帮手,他们也就成了最早的牛仔。
S2:到了出售牛肉的时节,这些劳工们就从空旷的大草原把牛群集拢到一起,把它们赶到市场。
S1:为什么牛仔在蛮荒的西部活动的时间那么短呢?
S2:那是因为西部不再荒凉了。此外,人们发明了带刺的铁丝网,这样牛仔再也不可能像从前那样自由自在地四处游逛了。
S1:所以,随着美国西部的发展,牛仔的工作变得越来越少。现在人们知道的不是这些最初的牛仔,而是我们在电影中看到的那些人物形象。

注释:意大利式西部片:60年代,传统的美国西部片逐渐走向衰落,而欧洲人却另辟蹊径,再次掀起了西部片的狂潮。意大利人塞尔吉奥?里奥尼导演的《镖客三部曲》是“意大利式西部片”的代表。他总是选择荒凉的大漠、衰败的小镇;情节紧张压抑,暴力场面触目惊心。叼着烟卷的主人公看似放浪形骸,实则是路见不平拔枪相助的硬汉,与传统西部片中爱唱高调的英俊牛仔大相径庭。美国明星克林特?伊斯特伍德藉此片一举成为动作英雄的代表。


4. Tolstoy托尔斯泰

M: Mary E: Edward

M: So, Ed. What do you know about this? Tolstoy’s history, what do you know about him?

E: Tolstoy wasn’t just one person, you know. They were a whole family of Russian nobility. The Tolstoy?s have left a lasting legacy in Russian politics, military history, literature, and fine arts.

M: They got around a bit then! Sounds like they did everything, but let’s start with the politics ... it says here that Peter Andreevich Tolstoy was a member of Peter the Great’s party.

E: Yes, he gradually gained Peter?s confidence serving first as the Russian ambassador to Constantinople, then as the head of the secret police.

M: OK, so what about the military Tolstoy’s? I’ve heard of one called Alexander Ivanovich Tolstoy. He was in the Battle of Charnova in 1807 where his regiment held out for 15 hours against the whole army commanded by Napoleon.

E: It sounds like you know plenty about him already. Let’s go on to the literary Tolstoy’s, shall we?

M: Leo Tolstoy is one of the greatest Russian novelists of the 19th century. He wrote War and Peace and Anna Karenina.

E: I think those books are the two most famous in the whole world! I wonder why he started writing.

M: He started his career in the military, he was first drawn to writing books when he served in Chechenya, and already his first novel, Kazaky, was something quite unlike anything written before him.

E: Oh, I see. OK, on to fine arts. It says here that there were many Tolstoy’s in high society.

M: Yes, Count Feodor Petrovich Tolstoy was one of the most fashionable Russian drawers and painters of the 1820s. Although he prepared fine illustrations, his true vocation was wax modeling and the design of medals.

E: And also, Count Feodor Ivanovich Tolstoy who was a notorious drunkard, gastronome, and duellist. It is said that he killed 11 people in duels.

M: He was involved in a different kind of art though. In 1803 he participated in the first Russian circumnavigation of the Earth and after he had his body tattooed!

E: Well, it certainly seems that the Tolstoy?s were interesting people, that?s for sure.


M:玛莉E:爱德华

M:爱德华,这方面你了解吗?有关托尔斯泰的生平,你知道多少?

E:你知道,不只有一个托尔斯泰,他们家是一个俄罗斯名门望族。托尔斯泰家族在俄罗斯的政治、军事、文学和美术方面都留下了不朽的遗产。

M:那时他们有些影响力。好像他们无所不能,不过我们先从政治方面开始……据说彼得·安德烈耶维奇·托尔斯泰是彼得大帝的宠臣。

E:是的,他逐渐赢得彼得的信任,先做了驻君士坦丁堡的俄罗斯大使,后来又担任了秘密警察机构的领导。

M:噢,那托尔斯泰家族在军事方面呢?我曾经听说过一个叫亚历山大·伊凡诺维奇·托尔斯泰的人,他1807年参加了查诺瓦战役,他的军团与拿破仑领导的军队对抗达15个小时。

E:听起来你对他已经了解不少了。那我们接着看看文学界的托尔斯泰,好吗?

M:列夫·托尔斯泰是19世纪俄罗斯最伟大的小说家之一,著有《战争与和平》和《安娜·卡列尼娜》。

E:我认为这是全世界最著名的两本书。我想知道他为什么要开始写作。

M:他一开始的职业是军人,在车臣服役时第一次对写书产生了兴趣,写出了第一部小说《哥萨克》,与他之前的人写的那些书大不一样。

E:哦,我知道了,接下来看看美术方面。据说在上流社会也有很多托尔斯泰家族的人。

M:是的,费奥多尔·彼德罗维奇·托尔斯泰伯爵是19世纪20年代俄罗斯最受欢迎的制图员和画家之一。尽管他的插图细致精美,但他真正的职业是做蜡铸模,设计奖章。

E:此外,费奥多尔·彼德罗维奇·托尔斯泰伯爵还是个声名狼藉的酒鬼、美食家和决斗专家。据说他在决斗中杀死了11个人。

M:不过他还参与各种不同的艺术创作。1803年他参加了俄罗斯第一届周游地球活动,后来他给自己纹了身。

E:好了,看起来托尔斯泰家族的人的确很有意思,这一点是肯定无疑了。

注释: 列夫·托尔斯泰(1828-1910):他不仅是一名伟大的作家,还是一名人道主义者,被称为“俄罗斯的良心”。他为自己的贵族身份感到羞愧,同情贫苦的农民,尽可能给予他们各种帮助。他在一封信中写道:“生活中我唯一喜欢的就是做我力所能及的事情,也就是根据基督的教义爱上帝和亲人。爱上帝——意思是:爱善行和尽可能地接近它。爱亲人——意思是:像爱自己的兄妹一样,爱所有的人。我致力于做到的正是这一点,也仅仅是这一点。”


5. Tulips郁金香

M: Man W: Woman

M: I want to get some flowers for my girlfriend’s birthday but she absolutely hates roses.

W: Have you thought about tulips?

M: They’re from Holland, aren’t they?

W: They are grown in Holland, yes. But originally they came from Central Asia where they grew wild.

M: Really?

W: The flower was introduced in Western Europe and the Netherlands in the 17th century by Carolus Clusius, a famous biologist from Vienna.

M: Oh, I see. Sounds like a good choice, they were very different to roses.

W: Very different, some people believed they had medicinal powers.

M: Well, I just need them to look pretty. They were very popular as a trading product, especially in Holland. Are your tulips very expensive?

W: That was years ago. Nowadays they are very reasonably priced. We have many different kinds, because botanists in the 1500s found ways to make the tulip even more decorative and tempting. Hybrids and mutations of the flower were seen as rarities and a sign of high status.

M: OK, so that must have marked the beginning of “Tulipmania”, I think they are probably still as popular today. My parents love to go to Holland to see all of the different types growing there. I had never really considered buying them before, though.

W: In those days tulips looked very different from the ones we can see today. The tulip became so popular because of its bright colours, dramatic flames and frilly petals.

M: Frilly petals? But these are totally smooth, I thought all tulips had smooth petals.

W: In the 20th century it was discovered that the frilly petals and dramatic flames that gave the flower its stunning look were, in fact, the symptoms of an infection by the mosaic virus.

M: A virus? So that’s why today we think tulips should be solid, smooth and monotone. Where did the virus come from?

W: The virus came to the tulip from a louse living on peaches and potatoes. We can still find some varieties with frilly petals today, but they are hybrids. The diseased varieties are no longer sold.

M: Good, because I don’t think my girlfriend would be too happy with sick flowers!

M:男人W:女人

M:我想买些花为我女朋友庆祝生日,可是她一点也不喜欢玫瑰。

W:你有没有想过买郁金香呢?

M:郁金香产自荷兰,是吧?

W:是的,它们是长在荷兰。但它们原本是长在中亚地区的野生植物。

M:真的吗?

W:17世纪时,一位著名的维也纳生物学家卡罗拉斯·克鲁休斯把郁金香引入西欧和荷兰。

M:哦,我知道了。这样听起来买郁金香是个不错的选择,毕竟跟玫瑰很不一样。

W:区别是很大,有些人认为郁金香还有药效。

M:哦,我只要它们看起来漂亮就行。郁金香以前作为一种商品还是很受欢迎的,尤其在荷兰。你这儿的这种花很贵吗?

W:几年前是很贵。现在价格相当合理了。我们的郁金香有很多品种。16世纪时植物学家们发现了使郁金香变得更漂亮动人的方法。杂交和变异的郁金香被认为是稀有品种,也是高贵身份的标志。

M:所以,那肯定标志着“郁金香狂潮*”的开端。我想这样的郁金香现在仍然很受欢迎。我父母喜欢去荷兰欣赏那里种植的所有种类的郁金香。不过我以前真的从来没想过买它。

W:那时候的郁金香跟我们现在所看到的大不一样。人们那么喜欢它是因为它亮丽的色彩、惊人的光芒和褶皱的花瓣。

M:褶皱的花瓣?但这些郁金香的花瓣都很平滑啊,我一直以为所有郁金香的花瓣都是平滑的。

W:20世纪时人们发现褶皱花瓣和惊人的光芒使郁金香看起来更加漂亮动人,但实际上这是它们感染了花叶病毒而引起的一种病症。

M:一种病毒?这就是为什么我们今天认为郁金香应该是花瓣厚实、平滑和单色的原因。这些病毒都是哪儿来的?

W:这些病毒来自于桃子和土豆上的一种寄生虫。今天我们仍然可以看到很多带褶皱花瓣的郁金香变种,但它们都是杂交的。那些带病的郁金香变种不再出售了。

M:很好,我想我女朋友也不会太喜欢带病的花儿。


注释:郁金香狂潮:郁金香在16世纪晚期从土耳其传入荷兰,起初只有富人才买得起。从17世纪30年代起,人们对郁金香的狂热开始蔓延。郁金香球茎成为投资保值的对象,人人都对其趋之若鹜。在法国,一个新娘的所有嫁妆就是一株稀有的郁金香球茎。1637年初,郁金香的价格几乎每天都在翻番。据说一个郁金香种植者因为牛吃光了他所有的存货而自杀。