Part Ⅰ Listening Comprehension (40 min) 

In Sections A,B and C you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your coloured answer sheet.?

Questions 1 to 5 refer to the talk in this section. At the end of the talk you will be given 75 seconds to answer the questions.
Now listen to the talk.
A) the coordination based on individual actions      B) the number of individual participants?      C) the necessity of individual actions      D) the requirements for participants?   

A) individual      B) combined      C) distinct      D) social?   

A) the manner of language use   
B) the topic and content of speech?   
C) the interactions between speaker and audience   
D) the relationship between speaker and audience?   

A) hide their real intentions   
B) voice others’ intentions?   
C) play double roles on and off stage   
D) only imitate other people in life?   

A) the absence of spontaneity   
B) the presence of individual actions?   
C) the lack of real intentions   
D) the absence of audience??   


Questions 6 to 10 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 75 seconds to answer the questions.
Now listen to the interview.
A) Students worked very hard.   
B) Students felt they needed a second degree.?   
C) Education was not career?oriented.   
D) There were many specialized subjects.?   

A) To turn out an adequate number of elite for the society.?   
B) To prepare students for their future career.?   
C) To offer practical and utilitarian courses in each programme.?   
D) To set up as many technical institutions as possible.?   

A) require good education   
B) are secondary to education?   
C) don’t call for good education   
D) don’t conflict with education?   

A) Shifting from one programme to another.   
B) Working out ways to reduce student number.?   
C) Emphasizing better quality of education.   
D) Setting up stricter examination standards.?   

A) those who can adapt to different professions   
B) those who have a high flexibility of mind?   
C) those who are thinkers, historians and philosophers   
D) those who possess only highly specialized skills??


Questions 11 to 13 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 45 seconds to answer the questions.
Now listen to the news.

11. Which of the following regions in the world will witness the sharpest
drop in life expectancy?? 
A) Latin America.   
B) Sub?Saharan Africa.?   
C) Asia.   
D) The Caribbean.?   

12. According to the news, which country will experience small life expectancy drop?? 
A) Burma.   
B) Botswana.   
C) Cambodia.   
D) Thailand.?   

13. The countries that are predicted to experience negative population growth are mainly in ____? 
A) Asia.   
B) Africa.   
C) Latin America.   
D) The Caribbean.??   

14. The trade dispute between the European Union and the US was caused by ____.? 
A) US refusal to accept arbitration by WTO   
B) US imposing tariffs on European steel?   
C) US refusal to pay compensation to EU   
D) US refusal to lower import duties on EU products?   

15. Who will be consulted first before the EU list is submitted to WTO?? 
A) EU member states.   
B) The United States.?   
C) WTO.   
D) The steel corporations.??


In this section you will hear a mini?lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY. While listening to the lecture, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a 15?minute gap?filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE after the mini lecture. Use the blank sheet for note taking.

Part Ⅱ Proofreading and Error Correction (15 min)

The passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:
For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line.?
For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a “∧” sign and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.?
For an unnecessary word, cross the unnecessary word with a slash “/”and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line.??

When ∧ art museum wants a new exhibit, (1) an
it never buys things in finished form and hangs (2) never
them on the wall. When a natural history museum?
wants an [ZZ(Z]exhibition[ZZ)], it must often build it. (3)exhibit?
Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET TWO as instructed.

One of the most important non-legislative functions of the U.S Congress?
is the power to investigate. This power is usually delegated to committees - either?
standing committees, special committees set for a specific (1)____?
purpose, or joint committees consisted of members of both houses. (2)____?
Investigations are held to gather information on the need for?
future legislation, to test the effectiveness of laws already passed,?
to inquire into the qualifications and performance of members and?
officials of the other branches, and in rare occasions, to lay the (3)____?
groundwork for impeachment proceedings. Frequently, committees?
rely outside experts to assist in conducting investigative hearings (4)____?
and to make out detailed studies of issues. (5)____?
There are important corollaries to the investigative power. One?
is the power to publicize investigations and its results. Most (6)____?
committee hearings are open to public and are reported (7)____?
widely in the mass media. Congressional investigations?
nevertheless represent one important tool available to lawmakers (8)____?
to inform the citizenry and to arouse public interests in national issues.
Congressional committees also have the power to compel?
testimony from unwilling witnesses, and to cite for contempt?
of Congress witnesses who refuse to testify and for perjury?
these who give false testimony. (10)____

Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (30 min)  (开始Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (30 min)计时)

In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of fifteen multiple?choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your coloured answer sheet.

Farmers in the developing world hate price fluctuations. It makes it hard to plan ahead. But most of them have little choice: they sell at the price the market sets. Farmers in Europe, the U.S. and Japan are luckier: they receive massive government subsidies in the form of guaranteed prices or direct handouts. Last month U.S. President Bush signed a new farm bill that gives American farmers $190 billion over the next 10 years, or $83 billion more than they had been scheduled to get, and pushes U.S. agricultural support close to crazy European levels. Bush said the step was necessary to “promote farmer independence and preserve the farm way of life for generations”. It is also designed to help the Republican Party win control of the Senate in November’s mid?term elections.?
Agricultural production in most poor countries accounts for up to 50% of GDP, compared to only 3% in rich countries. But most farmers in poor countries grow jus
t enough for themselves and their families. Those who try exporting to the West find their goods whacked with huge tariffs or competing against cheaper subsidized goods. In 1999 the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development concluded that for each dollar developing countries receive in aid they lose up to $14 just because of trade barriers imposed on the export of their manufactured goods. It’s not as if the developing world wants any favours, says Gerald Ssendwula, Uganda’s Minister of Finance. “What we want is for the rich countries to let us compete.”?
Agriculture is one of the few areas in which the Third World can compete. Land and labour are cheap, and as farming methods develop, new technologies should improve output. This is no pie?in?the?sky speculation. The biggest success in Kenya’s economy over the past decade has been the boom in exports of cut flowers and vegetables to Europe. But that may all change in 2008, when Kenya will be slightly too rich to qualify for the “least?developed country” status that allows African producers to avoid paying stiff European import duties on selected agricultural products. With trade barriers in place, the horticulture industry in Kenya will shrivel as quickly as a discarded rose. And while agriculture exports remain the great hope for poor countries, reducing trade barriers in other sectors also works: Americas African Growth and Opportunity Act, which cuts duties on exports of everything from handicrafts to shoes, has proved a boon to Africa’s manufacturers. The lesson: the Third World can prosper if the rich world gives it a fair go.?
This is what makes Bush’s decision to increase farm subsidies last month all the
more depressing. Poor countries have long suspected that the rich world urges rade liberalization only so it can wangle its way into new markets. Such suspicions caused the Seattle trade talks to break down three years ago. But last November members of the World Trade Organization, meeting in Doha, Qatar, finally agreed to a new round of talks designed to open up global trade in agriculture and
textiles. Rich countries assured poor countries, that their concerns were finally being addressed. Bush’s handout last month makes a lie of America’s commitment to those talks and his personal devotion to free trade.?

16. By comparison, farmers ____ receive more government subsidies than others.?

A) in the developing world   
B) in Japan   
C) in Europe   
D) in America?   

17. In addition to the economic considerations, there is a ____ motive behind Bush’s signing of the new farm bill.?

A) partisan   
B) social   
C) financial   
D) cultural?   

18. The message the writer attempts to convey throughout the passage is that ____.?

A) poor countries should be given equal opportunities in trade?   
B) “the least?developed country” status benefits agricultural countries?   
C) poor countries should remove their suspicions about trade liberalization?   
D) farmers in poor countries should also receive the benefit of subsidies   

19. The writer’s attitude towards new farm subsidies in the U.S. is ____.?

A) favourable   
B) ambiguous   
C) critical   
D) reserved??   

TEXT BOscar Wilde said that work is the refuge of people who have nothing better to do. If so, Americans are now among the world’s saddest refugees. Factory workers in the United States are working longer hours than at any time in the past half?century. America once led the rich world in cutting the average working week—from 70 hours in 1850 to less than 40 hours by the 1950s. It seemed natural that as people grew richer they would trade extra earnings for more leisure. Since the 1970s, however, the hours clocked up by American workers have risen, to an average of 42 this year in manufacturing.?Several studies suggest that something similar is happening outside manufacturing: Americans are spending more time at work than they did 20 years ago. Executives and lawyers boast of 80?hour weeks. On holiday, they seek out fax machines and phones as eagerly as Germans bag the best sun?loungers. Yet working time in Europe and Japan continues to fall. In Germany’s engineering industry the working week is to be trimmed from 36 to 35 hours next year. Most Germans get six weeks’ paid annual holiday; even the Japanese now take three weeks. Americans still make do with just two.?Germany responds to this contrast with its usual concern about whether people’s aversion to work is damaging its competitiveness. Yet German workers, like the Japanese, seem to be acting sensibly: as their incomes rise, they can achieve a better standard of living with fewer hours of work. The puzzle is why America, the world’s richest country, sees things differently. It is a puzzle with sinistersocial implications. Parents spend less time with their children, who may be left alone at home for longer. Is it just a coincidence that juvenile crime is on the rise??Some explanations for America’s time at work fail to stand up to scrutiny. One blames weak trade unions that leave workers open to exploitation. Are workers being forced by cost?cutting firms to toil harder just to keep their jobs? A recent study by two American economists, Richard Freeman and Linda Bell, suggests not: when asked, Americans actually want to work longer hours. Most German workers, in contrast, would rather work less.?Then, why do Americans want to work harder? One reason may be that the real earnings of many Americans have been stagnant or falling during the past two decades. People work longer merely to maintain their living standards. Yet many higher?skilled workers, who have enjoyed big increases in their real pay, have been working harder too. Also, one reason for the slow growth of wages has been the rapid growth in employment—which is more or less where the argument began.?Taxes may have something to do with it. People who work an extra hour in America are allowed to keep more of their money than those who do the same in Germany. Falls in marginal tax rates in America since the 1970s have made it all the more profitable to work longer.?None of these answers really explains why the century?long decline in working hours has gone into reverse in America but not elsewhere (though Britain shows signs of following America’s lead). Perhaps cultural differences—the last refuge of the defeated economist—are at play. Economists used to believe that once workers earned enough to provide for their basic needs and allow for a few luxuries, their incentive to work would be eroded, like lions relaxing after a kill. But humans are more susceptible to advertising than lions. Perhaps clever marketing has ensured that “basic needs”—for a shower with built?in TV, for a rocket?propelled car—expand continuously. Shopping is already one of America’s most popular pastimes. But it requires money—hence more work and less leisure.?Or try this: the television is not very good, and baseball and hockey keep being wiped out by strikes. Perhaps Wilde was right. Maybe Americans have nothing better to do.?
20. In the United States, working longer hours is ____.?

A) confined to the manufacturing industry   
B) a traditional practice in some sectors?   
C) prevalent in all sectors of society   
D) favoured by the economists?   

21. According to the third paragraph, which might be one of the consequences of working longer hours??

A) Rise in employees’ working efficiency.   
B) Rise in the number of young offenders.?   
C) Rise in people’s living standards.   
D) Rise in competitiveness.?   

22. Which of the following is the cause of working longer hours stated by
the writer??

A) Expansion of basic needs.   
B) Cultural differences.?   
C) Increase in real earnings.   
D) Advertising.??   

TEXT CThe fox really exasperated them both. As soon as they had let the fowls out, inthe early summer mornings, they had to take their guns and keep guard; and thenagain as soon as evening began to mellow, they must go once more. And he was so sly. He slid along in the deep grass; he was difficult as a serpent to see. And he seemed to circumvent the girls deliberately. Once or twice March had caught sight of the white tip of his brush, or the ruddy shadow of him in the deep grass, and she had let fire at him. But he made no account of this.?The trees on the wood?edge were a darkish, brownish green in the full light—for it was the end of August. Beyond, the naked, copper?like shafts and limbs of the pine trees shone in the air. Nearer the rough grass, with its long, brownish stalks all agleam, was full of light. The fowls were round about—the ducks were still swimming on the pond under the pine trees. March looked at it all, saw it all, and did not see it. She heard Banford speaking to the fowls in the distance—and she did not hear. What was she thinking about? Heaven knows. Her consciousness was, as it were, held back.?She lowered her eyes, and suddenly saw the fox. He was looking up at her. His chin was pressed down, and his eyes were looking up. They met her eyes. And he knew her. She was spellbound—she knew he knew her. So he looked into her eyes, and her soul failed her. He knew her, he has not daunted.?She struggled, confusedly she came to herself, and saw him making off, with slow leaps over some fallen boughs, slow, impudent jumps. Then he glanced over his shoulder, and ran smoothly away. She saw his brush held smooth like a feather, she saw his white buttocks twinkle. And he was gone, softly, soft as the wind.?She put her gun to her shoulder, but even then pursed her mouth, knowing it was nonsense to pretend to fire. So she began to walk slowly after him, in the direction he had gone, slowly, pertinaciously. She expected to find him. In her heart she was determined to find him. What she would do when she saw him again she did not consider. But she was determined to find him. So she walked abstractedly about on the edge of the wood, with wide, vivid dark eyes, and a faint flush in her cheeks. She did not think. In strange mindlessness she walked hither and thither...?As soon as supper was over, she rose again to go out, without saying why.?She took her gun again and went to look for the fox. For he had lifted his eyesupon her, and his knowing look seemed to have entered her brain. She did not somuch think of him: she was possessed by him. She saw his dark, shrewd, unabashedeye looking into her, knowing her. She felt him invisibly master her spirit. She knew the way he lowered his chin as he looked up, she knew his muzzle, the golden brown, and the greyish white. And again she saw him glance over his shoulder at her, half inviting, half contemptuous and cunning. So she went, with her great startled eyes glowing, her gun under her arm, along the wood edge. Meanwhilethe night fell, and a great moon rose above the pine trees.?
23. At the beginning of the story, the fox seems to the all EXCEPT ____.?

A) cunning   
B) fierce   
C) defiant   
D) annoying?   

24. As the story proceeds, March begins to feel under the spell of ____.?

A) the light   
B) the trees   
C) the night   
D) the fox?   

25. Gradually March seems to be in a state of ____.?

A) blankness   
B) imagination   
C) sadness   
D) excitement?   

26. At the end of the story, there seems to be a sense of ____ between March and the fox.?

A) detachment   
B) anger   
C) intimacy   
D) conflict?   

27. The passage creates an overall impression of ____.?

A) mystery   
B) horror   
C) liveliness   
D) contempt??   

TEXT DThe banners are packed, the tickets booked. The glitter and white overalls havebeen bought, the gas masks just fit and the mobile phones are ready. All that remains is to get to the parties.?This week will see a feast of pan?European protests. It started on Bastille Day, last Saturday, with the French unions and immigrants on the streets and the first demonstrations in Britain and Germany about climate change. It will continue tomorrow and Thursday with environmental and peace rallies against President Bush. But the big one is in Genoa, on Friday and Saturday, where the G8 leaders will meet behind the lines of 18,000 heavily armed police.?Unlike Prague, Gothenburg, Cologne or Nice, Genoa is expected to be Europe’s Seattle, the coming together of the disparate strands of resistance to corporate globalisation.?Neither the protesters nor the authorities know what will happen, but some things are predictable. Yes, there will be violence and yes, the mass media will focus on it. What should seriously concern the G8 is not so much the violence, the numbers in the streets or even that they themselves look like idiots hiding behind the barricades, but that the deep roots of a genuine new version of internationalism are growing.?For the first time in a generation, the international political and economic condition is in the dock. Moreover, the protesters are unlikely to go away, their confidence is growing rather than waning, their agendas are merging, the protests are spreading and drawing in all ages and concerns.?No single analysis has drawn all the strands of the debate together. In the meantime, the global protest “movement” is developing its own language, texts, agendas, myths, heroes and villains. Just as the G8 leaders, world bodies and businesses talk increasingly from the same script, so the protesters’ once disparatepolitical and social analyses are converging. The long?term project of governments and world bodies to globalise capital and development is being mirrored by the globalisation of protest.?But what happens next? Governments and world bodies are unsure which way to turn. However well they are policed, major protests reinforce the impression of indifferent elites, repression of debate, overreaction to dissent, injustice and unaccountable power.?Their options—apart from actually embracing the broad agenda being put to them—are to retreat behind even higher barricades, repress dissent further, abandon global meetings altogether or, more likely, meet only in places able to physically resist the masses.?Brussels is considering building a super fortress for international meetings. Genoa may be the last of the European super?protests.?
28. According to the context, the word “parties” at the end of the first paragraph refers to ____.?

A) the meeting of the G8 leaders   
B) the protests on Bastille Day?   
C) the coming pan?European protests   
D) the big protest to be held in Genoa?   

29. According to the passage, economic globalisation is paralleled by ____.?

A) the emerging differences in the global protest movement?   
B) the disappearing differences in the global protest movement?   
C) the growing European concern about globalisation?   
D) the increase in the number of protesters?   

30. According to the last paragraph, what is Brussels considering doing??

A) Meeting in places difficult to reach.   
B) Further repressing dissent.?   
C) Accepting the protesters’ agenda.   
D) Abandoning global meetings.   

(结束Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (30 min)计时) 


In this section there are seven passages with ten multiple?choice questions. Skim or scan them as required and then mark your answers on your coloured answer sheet.

TEXT E First read the question. 31.The main purpose of the passage is to ____.? A.demonstrate how to prevent crime the seriousness of crime? C.look into the causes of crime for more government efforts? Now go through TEXT E quickly to answer question 31.? For three weeks, every night at 11 p.m., correspondents, officers and judges from justice courts, police departments and prisons, psychiatrists, criminologists, victims and even criminals in prisons made their appearance on TV to debate on a topic “Crime in the United States”.? Indeed, crime has been disturbing the American people and has become a serious social problem just next to the unemployment problem. Some figures are terrifying : 1 of 4 Americans has been a victim of some kind of crimes; nearly 22 million crimecases occurred last year throughout the country. A simple arithmetic calculation indicates that on average, a crime is being committed in every 2 seconds. Now the Americans are living in a horrible environment. Their safety and property are threatened by various crimes: robbery, theft, rape, kidnapping, murder, arson, vandalism and violence.? The most worrisome problem comes from the fact that about one?third of crime cases were committed by the juvenile and 53% of criminals in jails are youngsters below 25. A poll indicates that about 73% of citizens said they avoided teenagers in streets, especially at night.? To protect themselves from crime, according to a released figure, 52% of Americans keep guns at home. But some gun owners turn out to be potential criminals. Some people demand that strict law for gun control be enforced; but others oppose the ban of gun. No decision is in sight.? Some experts said poverty, unemployment and racial discrimination are the cause of crime. They cited figures to show that 47% of crime cases were committed by t he black, though they account for only about 12% of the population of the nation . Others argued that about 54% of convicted criminals came from families associated with these evils.? The American state government and federal government spend billions of dollars each year in maintaining the police departments and jails. But police authorities complain that they have not sufficient well?trained hands and advanced equipment to detect and stop crimes. Several cases of criminal insurgence were reported as a result of resentment at overcrowded prisons. Taxpayers complain that they pay more and more tax but receive less and less protection from crime for their lives and property.? Though the host of the live TV programme made great efforts to search for a solution, so far no participant could put forward a measure that was approved by most of the attendants.
31. The main purpose of the passage is to ____.? 

A) demonstrate how to prevent crime   
B) show the seriousness of crime?   
C) look into the causes of crime   
D) call for more government efforts   

TEXT F First read the question.? 32.What is the main topic of the following passage?? A.Differences between modes of learning.? B.Deficiencies of formal learning.? C.Advantages of informal learning.? D.Social context and learning systems.? Now go through TEXT F quickly to answer question 32.? The term “formal learning” is used in this paper to refer to all learning that takes place in the classroom, irrespective of whether such learning is informed by conservative or progressive ideologies. “Informal learning”, on the other hand, is used to refer to learning which takes place outside the classroom.? These definitions provide the essential, though by no means sole, difference bet ween formal and informal learning. Formal learning is decontextualised from daily life and, indeed, as Scribner and Cole (1973:553) have observed, may actually “promote ways of learning and thinking which often run counter to those nurtured in practical daily life”. A characteristic feature of formal learning is the centrality of activities that are not closely paralleled by activities outside the classroom. The classroom can prepare for, draw on, and imitate the challenges of adult life outside the classroom, but it cannot, by its nature, consist of these challenges.? In doing this, language plays a critical role as the major channel for information exchange. “Success” in the classroom requires a student to master this abstract code. As Bernstein (1969:152) noted, the language of the classroom is more similar to the language used by middle?class families than that used by working?class families. Middle?class children thus find it easier to acquire the language of the classroom than their working?class peers.? Informal learning, in contrast, occurs in the setting to which it relates, making learning immediately relevant. In this context, language does not occupy such an important role: the child’s experience of learning is more holistic, involving sight, touch, taste, and smell—senses that are under?utilised in the classroom.?While formal learning is transmitted by teachers selected to perform this role, informal learning is acquired as a natural part of a child’s development. Adults or older children who are proficient in the skill or activity provide - sometime s unintentionally - target models of behaviour in the course of everyday activity. Informal learning, therefore, can take place at any time and is not subject to the limitations imposed by institutional timetabling.? The motivation of the learner provides another critical difference between the two modes of learning. The formal learner is generally motivated by some kind of external goal such as parental approval, social status, and potential financial reward. The informal learner, however, tends to be motivated by successful completion of the task itself and the partial acquisition of adult status.
32. What is the main topic of the following passage?? 

A) Differences between modes of learning.?   
B) Deficiencies of formal learning.?   
C) Advantages of informal learning.?   
D) Social context and learning systems.?   

TEXT G First read the question. 33.The three approaches mentioned in the passage aim at ____.? A.restructuring economy? B.improving the tax system? C.improving the living conditions? D.reducing poverty? Now go through TEXT G quickly to answer question 33. As a rule, it is essential that the poor’s productive capabilities be mobilized and the conditions for developing these human resources be improved. In this con nection, German development policy has developed the following three approaches: ? — Structural reform: Structural reform is the preferred approach for reducing poverty because it eliminates the causes of poverty rather than just its symptoms. It is vital that economic, political and social conditions which can alleviate poverty be established at national and international levels. Efforts at international level focus on fair conditions for international trade and competition. At national level, the poor must be helped through structural reform such as the introduction of democratic government, options for independent private enterprise, decentralization and agricultural reform. Development policy tools for realizing such reforms include political dialogue, political advisory services, structural adjustment measures and personnel and material support for reform efforts in the government, business and administrative sectors.?— Direct measures: Projects of this category are aimed at directly helping the poor and improving their living conditions or increasing their job options and earning potential. Of special importance are those projects which provide help for self?help in reducing poverty. The material support and advisory services offered by these projects reinforce the poor’s will to help themselves and help eable them to lead self?sufficient lives. Typical direct aid projects include the construction of simple housing by self?help groups, the creation of a savings and loan system for the poorer segments of society and support for women’s self?help organizations.? —Indirect measures: A project’s beneficiaries - its target group - are not only often difficult to identify clearly, they are also not necessarily all poor people. In these cases, the project in question must be integrated into one of the partner nation’s overall or sector?specific policies that aim at reducing poverty. A good illustration of this type of project is the use of advisory services to improve the tax system. Advising and upgrading the qualifications of personnel working in the fiscal system can lead to increased tax revenues which could be allocated for anti?poverty measures. In keeping with this focus, German development assistance concentrates on the poorest nations and on projects to reduce poverty. In 1993, some 10 percent of the commitments Germany made for bilateral financial and technical assistance went to self?help projects aimed at reducing poverty. Basic needs projects comprised 48 percent of all projects and almost 30 percent of the commitments made for financial and technical assistance were allocated for the world’s least developed countries (LDCs).
33. The three approaches mentioned in the passage aim at ____.? 

A) restructuring economy?   
B) improving the tax system?   
C) improving the living conditions?   
D) reducing poverty?   

TEXT H First read the question. 34.What is the following passage mainly concerned with?? A.Educational facilities in Africa.? B.Founding a university for women.? C.Agricultural production in Zimbabwe.? D.Women’s role in agricultural production.? Now go through TEXT H quickly to answer question 34. Access to education facilities is inadequate in sub?Saharan Africa. And women and girls there face greater disadvantages. They are often denied education as customs dictate they marry early and have children.? Two Zimbabwean academics plan to open a university to help African women whose education was interrupted by either family commitments or financial constraints. The university will initially be in Harare, but will be relocated to Marondera, 80 kilometres east. The academics, Hope Sadza, former deputy commissioner of Zimbabwe’s Public Service Commission and Fay Chung, former Minister of Education, are to open the university this month. It will initially have 400 students.? Students will be split into groups of 100 and placed in one of four faculties: social science, agriculture, environmental studies or science and technology. The university is for women aged 25 or older.? The need for a university for women is more acute in Africa, where women are the poorest and most disadvantaged. When they do have access to education they often must endure sexual harassment. Most women drop out because they lack educational materials or the schools are inaccessible.? “In Africa, women till the land and produce the bulk of the food, yet they have no understanding about marketing,” Sadza siad. “Agriculture is another area w here we can empower women.”? The university will have a 285?hectare farm and courses will include agricultural production and marketing.? Women account for 80 per cent of Africa’s agricultural production, but have no control over either the resources or policies.? The university since August has raised about Z$32.5 million (US$591,000) in donations and pledges. The university will be open to students from across Africa. It will be the second women’s university - after Sudan’s Ahfad University - in Africa.
34. What is the following passage mainly concerned with?? 

A) Educational facilities in Africa.?   
B) Founding a university for women.?   
C) Agricultural production in Zimbabwe.?   
D) Women’s role in agricultural production.?   

TEXT I First read the questions. 35.Which president advocated the lifting of the ban on women teachers?? A.Xu Yangqiu. B.Wu Yifang. C.Tao Xingzhi. D.Chen Heqin.? 36.What is Guo Juefu?? A.A painter. B.A poet. C.A biologist. D.A psychologist.? Now go through TEXT I quickly to answer questions 35 and 36. Many presidents of the century?old Nanjing Normal University (NJNU) have put forward insightful and inspiring education theories and practices, which have had a far?reaching impact on China’s education history.? Jiang Qian and Guo Bingwen proposed a school?running principle that advocated the balance between versatility and specialization, liberal arts and sciences.? Tao Xingzhi, a well?known educator, carried out many important reforms in the university. For the first time in China, he advocated the lifting of the ban on women teachers and opened adult training classes in summer vacations.? Wu Yifang, China’s first woman university president, emphasized normal education, regarding it as the parent engine and heavy industry of education.? Chen Heqin established a Chinese?style and scientific theory for modern educati on for children.? There have also been many noted scholars and artists.? Educator Xu Yangqiu was one of China’s earliest scholars to study American education theory.? Professor Luo Bingwen devoted himself to normal education theory and Chinese and foreign education history, advocating that teachers should be models of virtue for the students so that their behaviour guides the students.? Psychologist Guo Juefu is an important figure in China’s psychological history. China Psychological History〖WTBZ〗, a book he authored, has made its mark in international psychological circles.?Zhang Daqian, a well?known master of traditional Chinese painting, advised his students to read books systematically and selectively to rid themselves of worldliness, fickleness and pedantry. Zhang also pointed out that success comes largely from one’s own endeavours, but partly from circumstance.? Sun Wang, a poet versed in the poems popular in the Tang Dynasty (AD 618?907), told students to map out a long?term schedule for their studies and to work to wards fulfillment of their goal phase by phase.? Biologist Chen Bangjie overcame formidable difficulties to collect plant specimen and became ?China’s? father of bryology. Generations of talented educators have given Nanjing Normal University a fine reputation.
35. Which president advocated the lifting of the ban on women teachers?? 

A) Xu Yangqiu.   
B) Wu Yifang.   
C) Tao Xingzhi.   
D) Chen Heqin.?   

36. What is Guo Juefu?? 

A) A painter.   
B) A poet.   
C) A biologist.   
D) A psychologist.?   

TEXT J First read the questions. 37.The Chicago GSB M.B.A. Programme for Executives is scheduled to be completed within ____.? A.22 months B.20 months? C.16 weeks D.14 weeks? 38.If you are in Malaysia, when is your attendance date?? A.January 17??th?. B.January 15??th?.? C.January 29??th?. D.February 27??th?.? Now go through TEXT J quickly to answer questions 37 and 38. CHICAGO?Worldwide campuses.?World?renowned faculty.?World?class M.B.A. degree.? A world of opportunity. Limitless, lifelong opportunity awaits you when you attend the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business, and now you can do so from anywhere in the world.? Experience international business firsthand at the only top?ranked graduate school with campuses worldwide. The Chicago GSB M.B.A. Programme for Executives spreads 16 weeks of class sessions over 20 months so you can earn this renowned degree without leaving your job or relocating. Base your studies in Singapore; then collaborate with executives at our Chicago and Barcelona campuses. Learn not just the business theories of today but the business framework of tomorrow from the most acclaimed faculty in the world. Establish a global network of accomplished peers. And benefit for the rest of your life from the leadership training, the thinking, the relationships that become yours at Chicago GSB.? If you are a top?level manager seeking an unparalleled general management education, apply to the Chicago GSB M.B.A. Programme for Executives.?And be among those who shape the future.? The University of Chicago Graduate School of Business? Where world?class leaders emerge.? Chicago GSB / Asia Campus? 101 Penang Road, Singapore 238466? telephone 65 238 2196〓fax 65 835 6483?email [email protected]? Please reserve your attendance by fax or email.? Jakarta 15/Jan,Tuesday? The Grand Hyatt Hotel 19:00-21:30? Manila 24/Jan,Tuesday Taipei The Shangri?La Edsa Plaza 19:00-21:30 The Grand Formosa Regent? Hotel Hotel? 17/Jan,Tuesday Kuala Lumpur 19/Feb,Tuesday? 19:00-21:30 The Regent Hotel 19:00-21:30? 29/Jan,Tuesday? Bangkok 19:00-21:30 Singapore? The Grand Hyatt Erawan Hotel GSB Asia Campus? 22/Jan,Tuesday Hong Kong 27/Feb,Tuesday? 19:00-21:30 The Mandarin Oriental Hotel 19:00-21:30? 05/Feb,Tuesday? Tokyo 19:00-21:30? The Imperial Hotel
37. The Chicago GSB M.B.A. Programme for Executives is scheduled to be completed within ____.? 

A) 22 months   
B) 20 months?   
C) 16 weeks   
D) 14 weeks?   

38. If you are in Malaysia, when is your attendance date?? 

A) January 17??th?.   
B) January 15??th?.?   
C) January 29??th?.   
D) February 27??th?.?   

TEXT K First read the questions. 39.Who has written Cultural Amnesia: America’s Future and the Crisis of Memory?? A.Michael G.Zey. B.Stephen Bertman.? C.Don Tapscott, et al. D.Marvin Cetron et al.? 40.Which book is a collection of papers?? A.Digital Capital: Harnessing the Power of Business Webs.? B.Cheating Death: The Promise and the Future Impact of Trying to Live Forever.? C.The Future Factor: The Five Forces Transforming Our Lives and Shaping Human De stiny.? D.The University in Transformation: Global Perspectives on the Future of the Uni versity.? Now go through TEXT K quickly to answer questions 39 and 40. Digital Capital: Harnessing the Power of Business Webs? by Don Tapscott, David Ticoll, and Alex Lowy.? Harvard Business School Press. 2000. 272 pages. Electronic business webs have demolished the rules of competition. Innovative partnerships of digitally linked producers, suppliers, service providers, and customers are accelerating productivity and generating wealth in entirely new ways. This book offers a behind?the?scenes look at success stories such as Linux, eBay, and Cisco, and provides a step?by?step process for implementing an effective business?web strategy.? Regular Price:$27.50? The University in Transformation: Global Perspectives on the Future of the University edited by Sohail Inayatullah and Jennifer Gidley.? Bergin & Garvey/Greenwood Publishing Group. 2000. 270 pages.? This anthology of essays from scholars around the world describes how the forces of technology and economic globalization may alter what we think of as higher education. Topics include the virtual university, paying for college, feminist a lternative universities, the role of corporations in higher education,and the ri se of “multiversities”.? Regular Price:$65.00? The Future Factor: The Five Force Transforming Our Lives and Shaping Human Destiny by Michael G.Zey.? McGraw?Hill. 2000. 289 pages. This optimistic vision of the human future argues that unprecedented opportuniti es for growth are emerging from breathtaking innovations in biotechnology, comput ing, robotics, medicine, energy development, and space technology. Powerful new forces altering society and the global economy include cybergenesis, the merging of humans and smart machines, and biogenesis, the harnessing of genetic technol ogies to improve ourselves.? Regular Price: $24.95? Cheating Death: The Promise and the Future Impact of Trying to Live Forever? by Marvin Cetron and Owen Davies.? St. Martin’s Press. 1998. 224 pages. With advances in medicine and new gene research, the human life?span could exte nd hundreds of years. But a future of billions of people “cheating death” coul d have devastating impacts on societies, the economy, the environment, and fami ly life.? Regular Price: $21.95? Cultural Amnesia: America’s Future and the Crisis of Memory? by Stephen Bertman.? Praeger. 2000. 176 pages. American society is losing its memory: 60% of American adults cannot name the pr esident who ordered the dropping of the first atomic bomb, and 42% of college se niors cannot place the Civil War in the correct half of the nineteenth century. This loss of culture memory, as insidious as Alzheimer’s disease, eats away at t he soul of the nation, says Bertman, author of ?Hyperculture?. He argues that, t o build a culture worthy of the future, Americans need to move away from their m aterialistic, present?oriented lives and get more in touch with other dimension s of time.? Regular Price: $35.00
39. Who has written Cultural Amnesia: America’s Future and the Crisis of Memory?? 

A) Michael G.Zey.   
B) Stephen Bertman.?   
C) Don Tapscott, et al.   
D) Marvin Cetron et al.?   

40. Which book is a collection of papers?? 
A) Digital Capital: Harnessing the Power of Business Webs.?      B) Cheating Death: The Promise and the Future Impact of Trying to Live Forever.?      C) The Future Factor: The Five Forces Transforming Our Lives and Shaping Human De stiny.?      D) The University in Transformation: Global Perspectives on the Future of the University.?   

Part Ⅳ Translation (60 min)

Translate the underlined part of the following text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.



Translate the underlined part of the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.

For me the most interesting thing about a solitary life, and mine has been that for the last twenty years, is that it becomes increasingly rewarding. When I can wake up and watch the sun rise over the ocean, as I do most days, and know that I have an entire day ahead, uninterrupted, in which to write a few pages, take a walk with my dog, read and listen to music, I am flooded with happiness.? I’m lonely only when I am overtired, when I have worked too long without a brea k, when fro the time being I feel empty ad need filling up. And I am lonely somet imes when I come back home after a lecture trip, when I have seen a lot of peopl e and talked a lot, and am full to the brim with experience that needs to be sor ted out.? Then for a little while the house feels huge and empty, and I wonder where my se lf is hiding. It has to be recaptured slowly by watering the plants and perhaps, by looking again at each one as though it were a person.? It takes a while, as I watch the surf blowing up in fountains, but the moment co mes when the worlds falls away, and the self emerges again from the deep unconsc ious, bringing back all I have recently experienced to be explored and slowly un derstood.

Part Ⅴ Writing (60min)

It was reported in the press some time ago that a few second-and third-year students in a provincial university decided to try their hands at business in order to get prepared for the future. They opened six small shops near their university. Their teachers and classmates had different opinions about this phenomenon. Some thought that the students’ business experience would help them adapt better to society after graduation, while others held a negative view, saying that running shops might occupy too much of the students’ time and energy which should otherwise be devoted to their academic study. What do you think? Write a composition of about 300 words on the following topic:

Should University Students Go in for Business?? In the first part of your writing you should state clearly your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details. In the last part you should brig what you have written to a natural conclusion or a summary.? Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.

A GUIDE TO TEM-8 英语专业八级考试题型分析与应试技巧

听力理解(Listening Comprehension)


英语专业八级考试的听力理解部分包括四个项目:Section A,Section B,Section C与Section D。前三项,考试时间共20分钟。    ?

Section A:Talk ?

Section B:Conversation or Interview?

    Section C:News Broadcast?



    Section D:Note-taking and Gap-filling?


针对八级考试听力部分的特点,我们可以从局部理解和整体理解两个方面加以探讨。综观八级考试的听力考题,我们可以发现所有的试题类型都是由what, who, where, when, why 和 how所包括的内容,即事件、人物、地点、时间、原因和方式构成的。八级考试听力材料长短不一,或针对某一现象进行叙述,或根据某一事件展开对话(面试或访谈)。考生必须在一个大情景下抓住事情的要点和事件的发展线索后才能答题。大多数英语专业学生具有良好的听力基本功,他们需要提高的是听力的广度和深度,因此,考生在日常的学习生活中必须有意识地多听多练。同时,我们建议同学们在练习听力时注意以下几个问题:?






练习听力时,大家可采取“精听”和“泛听”两种方式结合来训练自己,前者的重点在于深度,后者则注重广度。精听的目的在于从what, who, where, when, why 和 how等角度入手,弄懂与之有关的所有问题,即所有细节性问题;而泛听则是听懂大意即可。通过这两方面长期不懈的努力,考生最终能获得用英语进行思维的能力。如果能做到用英语思考问题,那么做对几道试题是不会有太多困难的,因为试题从广义上也就分为两大类,局部理解题和通篇理解题,前者属于我们精听的范畴,而后者则属于我们泛听的对象。听的目的在于懂,那么,如何衡量自己是否听懂了呢?一个行之有效的方法就是“复述”。我们在听完一个片段后,可将所听的内容重复一遍,如果具有较高的准确度,就说明真正听懂了;否则需要再听一遍,如果连听几遍还无法较为满意地复述,说明所听内容太难,应予以更换。?





ean Economic Community)欧洲经济共同体、IMF(International Monetary Fund)国际货

币基金会、OPEC(Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) 石油输出国组织、

NASA(National Aeronautics and Space Administration)国家航空和航天局;单词如upsur









What strikes the woman most about the male robber is his ____.?

    A. clothes  B. age  C. physique  D. appearance?

我们一旦获悉即将听到的一篇材料与抢劫有关的信息后,大脑就很自然地启动一些我们所储存的关于抢劫的信息,从而主动权就掌握在考生手里。反之,如果不进行试题预读,我们可能在听完全部材料的三分之一后才知道其中心议题是抢劫。这就是预读的重要性。不仅如此,我们还可以利用多余的答题时间来达到预读的目的。题与题之间一般有15秒的答题时间,如果考生只用5秒就做好了第一题,那么余下的10秒就可以用于预读第2题、第3题等。八级听力考试的四个部分中,只有第四部分考生不能预读,因为考生在做完笔录后才发给该部分答卷即ANSWER SHEET ONE。?



审题似乎是一个老生常谈的话题,但却是十分重要的问题。这里所说的审题并非指考生完全看不懂题目,而是指由于审题不仔细而捕捉不到问题的核心。我们来看看下面一道题:?  The modern electronic anti-noise devices ____.?

A. are an update version of the traditional methods?

B. share similarities with the traditional methods?

C. are as inefficient as the traditional methods?

D. are based on an entirely new working principle?

以上问题的核心在于领会 modern electronic anti-noise devices(现代抗噪音电子装置

)的定义,而不仅仅是抗噪音电子装置),更不是一般的 anti-noise devices(抗噪音装

置)。录音中很可能出现有关anti-noise device在各个不同发展时期不同特点的信息,如


,如否定式Which of the following is INCORRECT,或排除式All the following are true EXCEPT,等等。正确审题是答题的关键,否则听力能力再好的考生也不会有好的成绩。



听懂说话者的语气可帮助我们回答问题。这一点在八级考试听力第二部分(对话或面试)显得更为重要。例如,Well, I’m afraid I do. But I might be mistaken. 表示了说话者不肯定的语气。有时字面意思与说话者所要表达的意图相反,这时考生更多的是依赖讲话者的口气来答题。如,I’d be sacked if I accepted your offer.所表达的是拒绝。讲话的口气是多种多样的,它可以表达惊奇、犹豫、挑战、讽刺、安慰、决心等,正确领会它们能做到事半功倍。?



考生可在听的过程中适当做些笔录因为仅凭脑力无法记住长达数分钟的讨论或对话。考生在记录时不必拘于形式,做一些只要自己能明白的简单符号记录即可,特别是众多的数字、时间、日期、人名、地名更需要我们做些笔记。而且,八级考试听力第四部分正是考察“听 和“记”的同步能力。?

八级考试听力第四部分记笔记填空是较为复杂的听力测试项目,有其自身特点,掌握这些特点对考生大有好处。该部分录音通常是一篇具有较强逻辑性的文章,从几个方面论证或叙述一个问题。因为考生须填空的词是基于整个问题要点及其重要细节的实词,所以考生在记笔记时应重点盯住这些内容,而非繁文褥节。举个例子,如果录音中出现了关于一个问题的三四个例证,如为了说明  fast  food而列举了  Kentucky  Fried  Chicken,McDonalds,Pizza Hut等等,考生最多记住一两个即可。另外,用于填空的词不一定非得是录音中出现的词,凡是在语义上与原文一致且语法上与填空短文相适应的单词均可。本书练习题该部分并不局限于书中所给出的答案,可能的答案也许有更多,大家可自行掌握。填空时,考生一定要注意所填单词的词性准确无误。我们发现,有的考生能找出一个意义相应的词,但不是很注意词性,因为该填动词的地方一定要填动词,如不能用intense来代替intensify。另外,倘若所填单词在句首,该单词首字母要大写。?



校对与改错(Proofreading and Error Correction)





















外层空间应为outer space,而不是out space(1996年第 5题),?

    做动作应为 perform an act,而不是 make an act(1997年第 8题),?

    姿式应为posture,而不是post (1997年第10题),?

    站起来应为 get to their feet,而不是get on their feet(1998年第 4题),等等。







该项目仍着眼于语言的运用。也就是说,该项目旨在测试在具体语境或上下文中使用语法或词汇的能力。在校对改错这个特定的考试环境中,它所提供的具体语境或上下文是一篇200来字的短文。这篇短文由十来个在意义上相关联的句子构成;而需要修改的语病都出现在这些意义上相互关联的句中。鉴于这个特点,学生就要从篇章结构这个角度去判断句子的正误。也就是说,学生要跳出单句的框架,从语段(表达一相关层次意思的句子组合)的角度来进行判断。    ?




  water rising away from the depths of the earth during(6)_____?



  hour of hunting yields in average about 100 edible calories(4)____

    (把in 改成 on)〖FK)〗?



    departure.This is what his body wants to do,therefore(5)____

    (把therefore 改成but)?


    as an hour of gathering produces 240.(5)____






三.阅读理解(Reading Comprehension)























研读(study reading)就是仔细阅读,对文章有透彻深刻的理解。根据考题,运用上下文、逻辑关系、背景知识进行判断和推论。对难句的理解和翻译用得着这种方法。 ?


1. 词汇量决定了你的阅读理解能力,词汇量越大,你阅读得越广,视野就越开阔,你阅读


2. 有限的词汇量必然会影响你阅读理解能力的提高。生词的含义只有在上下文中才能完全






3. 多读是扩大词汇量的最好的方法。不仅要读不同体裁的书和文章,而且要多接触不同题



1. 找出段落的中心思想?

任何阅读材料都有主要意思,即大意(main idea)。文字材料的大意有不同的层次。一个比


句子,但也只有一个大意,通常是段落的主题句(topic sentence)包含段落的大意。通常人




2. 如何对待阅读中的词汇问题?













3. 推论出段落的隐含意思?

有时,为了某种目的,作者往往不直接说出某一意思,而是含蓄地表达。这种隐含的意思有时是篇章的主要意思。所以阅读短文经常需要推论(making inference)。有时一句话的含义需要推论,有时整个篇章的含义需要推论。以下几条建议可以帮助你进行推论:?




(4)从作者的语气、语调、措辞等文体特征,读出作者的“言外之意”(reading beyond the lines)。?





4. 预测下文内容?







到诸如 scanning、skimming的方法,但是由于八级阅读分为正常阅读和快速阅读两部分,有必要提醒考生,两者所给的时间是不同的。通常,正常阅读是四至五篇,答十五题。快速阅读是六至七篇,答十题,而后者的时间只有十分钟。所以,我们决不能在一篇上花太多的时间,只能采用跳读或寻读的方法来尽快获取信息,每篇文章,先读试题和选项,然后再有的放矢地进行阅读。 做题时,如果遇到有些题解不了,或是文章中某几句看不懂的情况,应该暂时放弃,先做其他题或继续阅读其他部分。在做完其他试题后,有时间,再来做这些没有把握的试题。千万不能为了一道题或一段文字而停滞不前。及时丢卒保车,才能保证总体成绩。?





英语专业八级考试中的汉译英试题是对学生综合应用语言能力的一个测试。它既是对学生汉语水平的测试,又是对英语专业学生四年专业学习之后综合应用英语能力的检测。实践证明,我们的学生在四年的英语学习过程中,忽略了对汉语的学习,因而在对汉语词语和句子的理解过程中出现了一些可笑的问题;同时,汉译英测试也反映出学生在用英语表达过程中,由于母语干扰或其它方面原因,也有很多典型的错误。这里我们仅从理解和表达两个角度,分析英语专业八级考试汉译英常见的一些问题,并通过分析这些问题,指出英语专业本科阶段汉译英教学中,加强学生基本功是该课程的一个核心任务。 ?

一般认为,理解汉语对于汉语是母语的中国学生来说,不应该构成什么问题;翻译过程的第二阶段,即表达阶段,才是问题出现比较多的地方。但是,在我们的学生中,的确存在着因为汉语功底不扎实而造成错误理解的问题。 这种错误主要出现在对一些不能够从字面上推测意义的习语上,例如部分学生对“寒暄”、 “破天荒”、 “干脆”等词语会产生错误的理解。我们有的同学将“寒暄”译成了“coldly talk for a while”,这说明习语的理解对于汉语功底不深厚、光顾着学习外语却忽视母语学习的外语专业学生来说的确是一个很突出的问题。 ?其次,学生还会出现断句的错误。由于汉语语言的习惯,汉语句子在断句问题上并不严格,因此对句子的停顿很多情况下完全取决于读者的语感。学生对此往往认识并不充分,不敢果断断句,以为原文中的一个长句一定要用英语的一个长句来表达,因而出现跟原文风格不一致的译文,甚至在组织译文语言的时候出现很多语法错误。当然,汉语功底的欠缺、语感的薄弱往往也会造成错误的断句,从而导致错误的翻译。例如,2000年八级考试中,第一句话是“世界上第一代博物馆属于自然博物馆,它是通过化石、标本等向人们介绍地球和各种生物的演化历史”。很多同学用which这个关系代词来形成了一个结构很复杂的主从复合句,但是在组织这个句子时出现很多错误,造成修饰关系不明的情况。如果我们果断断句,翻译成: ?

The world’s first generation museums are museums of natural history. They introduce to the ?people? with fossils and specimens the evolution of the earth and various living organism on it. 用这样两个简单句来处理,就可以避免语法错误,而且可以使

句子语义鲜明。 ?

此外,断句的错误还表现在词组间关系的断定上,比如,“科学知识”和“科学技术”,后者“科学”和“技术”之间是一种并列关系。这种修饰和并列关系在汉语中并没有形式上的分别,这种关系是一种意合关系,需要读者发挥自己的判断力和语感。很多同学把这两个短语分别译成了“science and knowledge”和“scientific technology”,由此可见我们在理解上还存在问题,学生们的汉语功底还不够深厚。 ?



比如说,“我的导师是亚裔人”(1998年八级考试),不能简单地翻译成“My tutor is an As

ian”,因为所谓“亚裔”,是指亚洲的血缘,但并没明确国籍,根据上下文,却应该是美国国籍,因此这句话应该翻译为“My tutor is an Asian American.”,同样的道理,在同一篇文章中出现的“除有一名来自德国外,其余5位均是亚裔学生”也应该处理成?

“...except one of German origin, the rest five were all of Asian origin”。?



“Of the present 1.8 million residents Vancouver, half are not native, and one in

every four is of Asian origin. The 250,000 Chinese have been playing a decisive role

in the economic transformation of Vacouver.”?

由此看来,缺乏一定的背景知识,我们就不可能把这些句子处理正确。 ?























以1997年的八级考试写作项目为例。该年的标题是 SOWING THE SEEDS,NURTURING GROWTH AND HARVESTING THE REWARDS。如果我们孤立地看题目的话,就很难领会该篇作文的具体要求和目的。但是,一旦我们把标题与前面的情景与观点部分联系起来,这个标题的含义就变得清晰了:它要求学生用标题所含的耕作过程来比拟获得大学学业成就的过程。同时,对具体语篇模式的要求(即ANALOGY)也显示在这部分中间。至于对作文修辞框架的要求,则出现在标题下面的一段文字中。?







一篇优秀的作文应该具有以下两个特点。就八级写作项目而言,这主要体现在作文的内容和框架上。按照写作要求,一篇合格的作文由三个部分组成。第一部分包括作者的论点(THESIS STATEMENT)。论点应明确、清楚。第二部分是作文的主体。这部分的要求是通过恰当、合适的语篇模式(如:CAUSE AND EFFECT,COMPARISON AND CONTRAST,等等)来论证前面提出的论点。论证的过程要做到结构严谨、层次分明、合乎逻辑。要做到结构严谨,就需要学生在写作中抓住中心,并围绕中心展开讨论。结构严谨的作文同时也应是层次分明的作文。为了使论证过程具有说服力,作文应采用一种层次结构。







l)  作文中的论点未展开。这主要表现为没有按照要求在第一部分中阐明观点,而是东拉西扯,写了与题目有关或无关的细节或现象。比如在以IN SUPPORT OF DORMITORY POLICIES为题的作文中,一些学生不是开门见山地点明主题思想,而是列举了一些寝室里的情况或评论一些不良现象。最后由于篇幅有限,就在结束时提一句寝室制度就草草收尾。?

2)  作文结构不严谨,段落没有主题句,且句际段落关系不明显。这种现象在考生的作文中带有一定的普遍性。有些学生在写作时没有理清思路,按照一定的逻辑框架写,而是想到什么就写什么,因此文章显得松散。?

3)  作文首尾不一致。作文开头与结尾部分内容衔接不上,或自相矛盾。?

4)  作文缺乏连贯性(COHERENCE)。在对历年考生作文的分析中,我们发现以下几个现象:A. 差的作文中简单句多,而好的作文中则少;?

B. 差的作文中从句和连词出现的频率大大低于好的作文;?

C. 差的作文中各种照应的使用低于好的作文;?

D. 差的作文中关键词和同义/近义词出现的频率低于好的作文。?




2、就八级写作项目而言,要提高驾驭文章整体思路的能力就要加强逻辑思维训练,通过各类写作手法的操练来提高这方面的能力。此外,要提高语言的准确性,学会使用各种语篇纽带,如 LOGICAL、GRAMMATICAL、SEMANTIC CONNECTORS,使作文思路清晰,论点鲜明,例证充分,语言得体,真正达到写作的要求。