试卷一 (95 min)???

Part Ⅰ
Listening Comprehension (40 min)

In Sections A, B and C you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully
and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your Coloured Answer Sheet.?

Questions 1 to 5 refer to the talk in this section .At the end of the talk you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following five questions. Now listen to the talk. ?
1. In the Black Forest, the acid rain is said to attack all EXCEPT ___.?
A. firs B. metals C. leaves D. soil?
2. The percentage of firs dying in the Black Forest is ___.?
A.41% B.43% C.26% D.76%?
3. Germany is tackling part of the problem by introducing ___.?
A. new car designing schemes
B. new car production lines?
C. a new type of smoke stacks
D. new car safety standards?
4. Which of the following statements is INCORRECT??
A. Germany is likely to succeed in persuading her neighbours to reduce acid rain.
B. The disastrous effects of acid rain are not confined to one area.?
C. German tourists are allowed to drive across their neighbours’ borders.?
D. Germany’s neighbours are in favour of the use of lead-free petrol.?
5. On the issue of future solution of acid rain, the speaker’s tone is that of ___.
A. warning B. pessimism C. indifference D. optimism?
Questions 6 to 10 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following five questions. Now listen
to the interview.?
6. What subject is Mr. Pitt good at_____??
A. Art. B. French. C. German. D.Chemistry.?
7. What does Mr. Pitt NOT do in his spare time??
A. Doing a bit of acting and photography.?
B. Going to concerts frequently.?
C. Playing traditional jazz and folk music.?
D. Travelling in Europe by hitch-hiking.?
8. When asked what a manager’s role is Mr. Pitt sounds ___.?
A. confident B. hesitant C. resolute D. doubtful
9. What does Mr. Pitt say he would like to be??
A. An export salesman working overseas.?
B. An accountant working in the company.?
C. A production manager in a branch.?
D. A policy maker in the company.?
10. Which of the following statements about the management trainee scheme is TRUE?
A. Trainees are required to sign contracts initially.?
B. Trainees’ performance is evaluated when necessary.?
C. Trainees’ starting salary is 870 pounds.?
D. Trainees cannot quit the management scheme?


Question 11 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 15 seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the news.?
11. Which of the following statements is TRUE??
A. Five gunmen were flown to Iran in a helicopter.?
B. Most of the ransom was retrieved in the end.?
C. The children were held for five days.?
D. The authorities have passed sentence on the gunmen.?
Question 12 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 15 seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the news.?
12. According to the news, American troops in Panama ___.?
A. were attacked at refugee camps

B. were angry at delays in departure?
C. attacked Cuban refugee camps last week
D. will be increased to 2,000?
Question 13 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 15 seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the news.?
13. Which of the following statements is CORRECT? U.S. lawmakers ___.?
A. challenged the accord for freezing Pyongyang’s nuclear programme?
B. required the inspection of Pyongyang’ s nuclear site for at least five years
C. were worried that North Korea may take advantage of the concessions?
D. blamed the U. S. negotiator for making no compromises with North Korea
Questions 14 & 15 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item,
you will be given 30 seconds to answer the two questions. Now listen to the news.
14. According to the news, the Italian Parliament was asked to act by ___.?
A. the U.N. B. the Red Cross?
C. the Defence Minister D. the Swedish Government?
15. On the issue of limited use of landmines, the Italian Parliament is ___.?
A. noncommittal B. resolute C. unsupportive D. wavering?
Fill in each of the gaps with ONE word. You may refer to your notes. Make sure the word you fill in is both grammatically and semantically acceptable.?
In business, many, places adopt a credit system, which dates back?
to ancient times. At present, purchases can be made by using credit?
cards. They fall into two categories: one has (1)___ use, while the 1.___?
other is accepted almost everywhere. The application for the use of?
the latter one must be made at a (2) ___. 2.___?
Once the customer starts using the card, he will be provided with?
a monthly statement of (3)___ by the credit company. He is 3.___?
required to pay one quarter to half of his credit (4)___ every 4.___?
Advantages. 1. With a card, it is not (5)___ to save up money 5.___?
before an actual purchase. 2. If the card is lost, its owner is protected.?
3. A(6)___ and complete list of purchase received from the credit 6.___?
company helps the owner to remember the time and (7)___ of his 7.___?
purchase. 4. the cards axe accepted in a (n) (8)___ by professional 8.___?

people like dentists, etc.?
Major disadvantage. The card owner is tempted to (9)___ his 9.___?
money. If this is the case, it will become increasingly diflie-lt for the?
user to keep up with the required (10)___, which will result in the 10.___?
credit card being cancelled by the credit company.?

Part Ⅱ

Proofreading an Error Correction (15 min)
The following passage contains TEN errors. Each line contains a maximum of one error and three are free from error. In each case, only one word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way.?
For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line.?
For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a “∧” sign and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.?
For an unnecessary word, cross out the unnecessary word with a slash “/” and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line.?
When∧art museum wants a new exhibit, (1) an?
it never〖KG-1*3〗/ buys things in finished form and hangs (2) never?
them on the wall. When a natural history museum ?
wants an exhibition, it must often build it. (3) exhibit?
Classic Intention Movement?
In social situations, the classic Intention Movement is ‘the?
chair-grasp’. Host and guest have been talking for some time,?
but now the host has an appointment to keep and can get away. 1.___?
His urge to go is held in cheek by his desire not be rude to his 2.___?
guest, if he did not care of his guest’ s feelings he would simply 3.___?
get up out of his chair and to announce his departure. This is 4.___?
what his body wants to do, therefore his politeness glues his body 5.___?
to the chair and refuses to let him raise. It is at this point that he 6.___?
performs the chair-grasp Intention Movement. He continues to?
talk to the guest and listen to him, but leans forward and grasps?
the arms of the chair as about to push himself upwards. This is 7.___?
the first act he would make if he were rising . If he were not 8.___?

hesitating, it would only last a fraction of the second. He would 9.___?
lean, push, rise, and be up. But now, instead, it lasts much longer.?
He holds his ’readiness-to-rise’ post and keeps on holding it. It is 10.___?
as if his body had frozen at the get-ready moment.?

Part Ⅲ

Reading Comprehension (40 min)

In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of fifteen multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your Coloured Answer Sheet.??

A magazine’s design is more than decoration, more than simple packaging. It expresses the magazine’s very character. The Atlantic Monthly has long attempted to provide a design environment in which two disparate traditions—literary
and journalistic—can co-exist in pleasurable dignity. The redesign that we in
troduce with this issue—the work of our art director, Judy Garlan—represents, we think, a notable enhancement of that environment.?
Garlan explains some of what was in her mind as she began to create the new design: “I saw this as an opportunity to bring the look closer to matching the
elegance and power of the writing which the magazine is known for. The overall
design has to be able to encompass a great diversity of styles and subjects—urgent pieces of reporting, serious essays, lighter pieces, lifestyle-oriented pieces, short stories, poetry. We don’t want lighter pieces to seem too heavy, and we
don’t want heavier pieces to seem too petty. We also use a broad range of art
and photography, and the design has to work well with that, too. At the same time
, the magazine needs to have a consistent feel, needs to underscore the sense that everything in it is part of one Atlantic World.?
The primary typefaces Garlan chose for this task are Times Roman, for a more readable body type, and Bauer Bodoni, for a more stylish and flexible display
type(article titles, large initials, and so on). Other aspects of the new design
are structural. The articles in the front of the magazine, which once flowed in
to one another, now stand on their own, to gain prominence. The Travel column, now featured in every issue, has been moved from the back to the front. As noted
in this space last month, the word “Monthly” rejoins “The Atlantic” on the cover, after a decade long absence.?
Judy Garlan came to the Atlantic in 1981 after having served as the art director of several other magazines. During her tenure here The Atlantic has won more than 300 awards for visual excellence, from the Society of illustrators, the American Institute of Graphic Arts, the Art Directors Club, Communication Arts, and elsewhere. Garlan was in various ways assisted in the redesign by the entire art-department staff: Robin Gilmore, Barnes, Betsy Urrico, Gillian Kahn, and Is a Manning.?
The artist Nicholas Gaetano contributed as well: he redrew our colophon (the figure of Neptune that appears on the contents page)and created the symbols that will appear regularly on this page(a rendition of our building) ,on the Puzzler page, above the opening of letters, and on the masthead. Gaetano, whose work manages to combine stylish clarity and breezy strength, is the cover artist for this issue.?
16. Part of the new design is to be concerned with the following EXCEPT ___.?
A. variation in the typefaces?
B. reorganization of articles in the front?
C. creation of the travel column?
D. reinstatement of its former name?
17. According to the passage, the new design work involves ___.?
A. other artists as well?
B. other writers as well?
C. only the cover artist?
D. only the art director?
18. This article aims to ___.?
A. emphasize the importance of a magazine’s design?
B. introduce the magazine’s art director?
C. persuade the reader to subscribe to the magazine?
D. inform the reader of its new design and features?
WHY SHOULD anyone buy the latest volume in the ever-expanding Dictionary of
National Biography? I do not mean that it is bad, as the reviewers will agree.
But it will cost you 65 pounds. And have you got the rest of volumes? You need the basic 22 plus the largely decennial supplements to bring the total to 31. Of course, it will be answered, public and academic libraries will want the new volume. After all, it adds 1,068 lives of people who escaped the net of the original compilers. Yet in 10 year’s time a revised version of the whole caboodle, called the New Dictionary of National Biography, will bbe published. Its editor, Proessor Colin Matthew, tells me that he will have room for about 50,000 lives, some 13,000 more than in the current DNB. This rather puts the 1,068 in Missing Persons in the shade.
When Dr. Nicholls wrote to The Spectator in 1989 asking for name of people
whom readers had looked up in the DNB and had been disappointed not to find, she says that she received some 100,000 suggestions. (Well, she had written to ’o
t her quality newspapers’ too. )As soon as her committee had whittled the numbers
down, the professional problems of an editor began. Contributors didn’t file copy on time; some who did sent too much: 50,000 words instead of 500 is a record,
according to Dr. Nicholls.?
There remains the dinner-party game of who’s in, who’s out. That is a game that the reviewers have played and will continue to play. Criminals were my initial worry. After all, the original edition of the DNB boasted: Malefactors whose crimes excite a permanent interest have received hardly less attention than benefactors. Mr. John Gross clearly had similar anxieties, for he complains that, while the murderer Christie is in, Crippen is out. One might say in reply that the injustice of the hanging of Evans instead of Christie was a force in the repeal of capital punishment in Britain, as Ludovie Kennedy (the author of Christies entry in Missing Persons ) notes. But then Crippen was reputed as the first mur
derer to be caught by telegraphy(he had tried to escape by ship to America).?
It is surprising to find Max Miller excluded when really not very memorable names get in. There has been a conscious effort to put in artists and architects from the Middle Ages. About their lives not much is always known.?
Of Hugo of Bury St Edmunds, a 12th-century illuminator whose dates of birth and death are not recorded, his biographer comments: ‘Whether or not Hugo was a wall-painter, the records of his activities as carver and manuscript painter attest to his versatility’. Then there had to be more women, too( 12 percent, against the original DBN’ s 3), such as Roy Strong’ s subject, the Tudor painter
Levina Teerlinc, of whom he remarks: ‘Her most characteristic feature is a head attached to a too small, spindly body. Her technique remained awkward, thin and often cursory’. Doesn’t seem to qualify her as a memorable artist. Yet it may be
better than the record of the original DNB, which included lives of people who never existed(such as Merlin) and even managed to give thanks to J. W. Clerke as
a contributor, though, as a later edition admits in a shamefaced footnote, ‘except for the entry in the List of Contributors there is no trace of J. W. Clerke’.?
19. The writer suggests that there is no sense in buying the latest volume ___.?
A. because it is not worth the price?
B. because it has fewer entries than before?
C. unless one has all the volumes in the collection?
D. unless an expanded DNB will come out shortly?
20. On the issue of who should be included in the DNB, the writer seems to suggest that ___.?
A. the editors had clear roles to follow?
B. there were too many criminals in the entries?
C. the editors clearly favoured benefactors?
D. the editors were irrational in their choices?
21. Crippen was absent from the DNB ___.?
A. because he escaped to the U.S.?
B. because death sentence had been abolished?
C. for reasons not clarified?
D. because of the editors’ mistake?
22. The author quoted a few entries in the last paragraph to ___.?
A. illustrate some features of the DNB?
B. give emphasis to his argument?
C. impress the reader with its content?
D. highlight the people in the Middle Ages?
23. Throughout the passage, the writer’s tone towards the DNB was ___.?
A. complimentary B. supportive C. sarcastic D. bitter?



Medical consumerism——like all sorts of consumerism, only more menacingly
——is designed to be unsatisfying. The prolongation of life and the search for
perfect health (beauty, youth, happiness)are inherently self-defeating. The law
of diminishing returns necessarily applies. You can make higher percentages of people survive into their eighties and nineties. But, as any geriatric ward shows
, that is not the same as to confer enduring mobility, awareness and autonomy. Extending life grows medically feasible, but it is often a life deprived of every

thing, and one exposed to degrading neglect as resources grow over-stretched and
politics turn mean.?
What an ignoramus destiny for medicine if its future turned into one of bestowing meager increments of unenjoyed life! It would mirror the fate of athletes
, in which disproportionate energies and resources—not least medical ones, like illegal steroids—are now invested to shave records by milliseconds. And, it goes without saying, the logical extension of longevism—the “ abolition”
of death — would not be a solution but only an exacerbation. To air these predicaments is not anti-medical spleen—a churlish reprisal against medicine for its victories—but simply to face the growing reality of medical power not exactly without responsibility but with dissolving goals.?
Hence medicine’s finest hour becomes the dawn of its dilemmas. For centuries, medicine was impotent and hence unproblematic. From the Greeks to the Great
War, its job was simple: to struggle with lethal diseases and gross disabilities
, to ensure live births, and to manage pain. It performed these uncontroversial
tasks by and large with meager success. Today, with mission accomplished, medicines triumphs are dissolving in disorientation. Medicine has led to vastly inflated expectations, which the public has eagerly swallowed. Yet as these expectations grow unlimited, they become unfulfillable. The task facing medicine in the twenty-first century will be to redefine its limits even as it extends its capacities.?
24. In the author’s opinion, the prolongation of life is equal to ___.?
A. mobility B. deprivation ?C. autonomy D. awareness?
25. In the second paragraph a comparison is drawn between ___.?
A. medicine and life
B. resources and energies?
C. predicaments and solutions
D. athletics and longevism?

The biggest problem facing Chile as it promotes itself as a tourist destination to be reckoned with, is that it is at the end of the earth. It is too far south to be a convenient stop on the way to anywhere else and is much farther than a relatively cheap half-day’s flight away from the big tourist markets, unlike Mexico, for example.? Chile, therefore, is having to fight hard to attract tourists, to convince
travellers that it is worth coming halfway round the world to visit. But it is
succeeding, not only in existing markets like the USA and Western Europe but in
new territories, in particular the Far East. Markets closer to home, however, are not being forgotten. More than 50% of visitors to Chile still come from its nearest neighbour, Argentina, where the cost of living is much higher.?
Like all South American countries, Chile sees tourism as a valuable earner
of foreign currency, although it has been far more serious than most in promoting its image abroad. Relatively stable politically within the region, it has benefited from the problems suffered in other areas. In Peru, guerrilla warfare in
recent years has dealt a heavy blow to the tourist industry and fear of street crime in Brazil has reduced the attraction of Rio de Janeiro as a dream destination for foreigners.?
More than 150,000 people are directly involved in Chile’s tourist sector,
an industry which earns the country more than US $ 950 million each year. The state-run National Tourism Service, in partnership with a number of private companies, is currently running a worldwide campaign, taking part in trade fairs and international events to attract visitors to Chile.?
Chile’s great strength as a tourist destination is its geographical diversity. From the parched Atacama Desert in the north to the Antarctic snowfields of
the south, it is more than 5,000km long. With the Pacific on one side and the Andean mountains on the other, Chile boasts natural attractions. Its beaches are not up to Caribbean standards but resorts such as Vina del Mar are generally clean and unspoilt and have a high standard of services.?
But the tromp card is the Andes mountain range. There are a number of excellent ski resorts within one hour’s drive of the capital, Santiago, and the national parks in the south are home to rare animal and plant species. The parks already attract specialist visitors, including mountaineers, who come to climb the technically difficult peaks, and fishermen, lured by the salmon and trout in theregion’s rivers.? However, infrastructural development in these areas is limited. The ski re
sorts do not have as many lifts and pistes as their European counterparts and the poor quality of roads in the south means that only the most determined travelers see the best of the national parks.?
Air links between Chile and the rest of the world are, at present, relatively poor. While Chile’s two largest airlines have extensive networks within South
America, they operate only a small number of routes to the United States and Europe, while services to Asia are almost non-existent.?
Internal transport links are being improved and luxury hotels are being built in one of its national parks. Nor is development being restricted to the Andes. Easter Island and Chile’s Antarctic Territory axe also on the list of areas where the Government believes it can create tourist markets.?
But the rush to open hitherto inaccessible areas to mass tourism is not being welcomed by everyone. Indigenous and environmental groups, including Greenpe

ace, say that many parts of the Andes will suffer if they become over-developed.
There is a genuine fear that areas of Chile will suffer the cultural destruction witnessed in Mexico and European resorts.?
The policy of opening up Antarctica to tourism is also politically sensitive. Chile already has permanent settlements on the ice and many people see the decision to allow tourists there as a political move, enhancing Santiago’ s territorial claim over part of Antarctica.?
The Chilean Government has promised to respect the environment as it seeks
to bring tourism to these areas. But there are immense commercial pressures to exploit the country’s tourism potential. The Government will have to monitor developments closely if it is genuinely concerned in creating a balanced, controlled industry and if the price of an increasingly lucrative tourist market is not going to mean the loss of many of Chile’s natural riches.?
26. Chile is disadvantaged in the promotion of its tourism by ___.?
A. geographical location B. guerrilla warfare?
C. political instability D. street crime?
27. Many of Chile’s tourists used to come from EXCEPT ___.?
A.U.S.A B. the Far East?
C. western Europe D. her neighbours?
28. According to the author, Chile’s greatest attraction is ___.?
A. the unspoilt beaches
B. the dry and hot desert?
C. the famous mountain range
D. the high standard of services?
29. According to the passage, in WHICH area improvement is already under way??
A. Facilities in the ski resorts.
B. Domestic transport system.?
C. Air services to Asia.
D. Road network in the south.?
30. The objection to the development of Chile’s tourism might be all EXCEPT that it ___.?

A. is ambitions and unrealistic
B. is politically sensitive?
C. will bring harm to culture
D. will cause pollution in the area?
In this section there are seven passages followed by ten multiple-Choice questions. Skim or scan them as required and then mark your answers on your Coloured Answer heet.?
First read the question.?
31. The main purpose of the passage is to ___.?
A. illustrate the features of willpower?
B. introduce ways to build up willpower?
C. explain the advantages of willpower?
D. define the essence of willpower?
Now go through the TEXT E quickly and answer the question.?
Willpower isn’t immutable trait we’re either born with or not. It is a skill that can be developed, strengthened and targeted to help us achieve our goals.
“Fundamental among man’s inner powers is the tremendous unrealized potency
of man’s own will,” wrote Italian psychologist Roberto Assagioli 25 years ago.
The trained will is a masterful weapon, ”added Man Marlatt of the University of
Washington, a psychologist who is studying how willpower helps people break habi
ts and change their lives.“ The dictionary defines will power as control of one
’s impulses and actions. The key words are power and control. The power is there,
but you have to control it.” Here, from Marlatt and other experts, is how to do that:?
Be positive. Don’t confuse willpower with self-denial. Willpower is most dynamic when applied to positive, uplifting purposes.?
Positive willpower helps us overcome inertia and focus on the future. When
the going gets tough, visualize yourself happily and busily engaged in your goal
, and you’ ll keep working toward it.?
Make up your mind. James Prochaska, professor of psychology at the University of Rhode Island, has identified four stages in making a change. He calls them
precontemplation (resisting the change), contemplation (weighing the pros and cons of the change), action ( exercising willpower to make the change), and maintenance (using willpower to sustain the change).?
Some people are “chronic contemplators,” Prochaska says. They know they should reduce their drinking but will have one mere cocktail while they consider the matter. They may never put contemplation into action.?
To focus and mobilize your efforts, set a deadline.?
Sharpen your will. In 1915, psychologist Boyd Barrett suggested a list of repetitive will-training activities-stepping up and down from a chair 30 times, spilling a box of matches and carefully replacing them one by one. These exerciss, he maintained, strengthen the will so it can confront more consequential and
difficult challenges.?
New Jersey Sen. Bill Bradley was a basketball star with the champion New York Knicks. On top of regular practice, he always went to the gym early and practised foul shots alone. He was determined to be among the best form of the foul line. True to his goal, he developed the highest percentage of successful free throws on his team.?
Expect trouble. The saying“ Where there’s a will, there’s a way” is not
the whole truth. Given the will, you still have to anticipate obstacles and plan how to deal with them.?
When professor of psychology Saul Shiffman of the University of Pittsburgh
worked with reformed smokers who’s gone back to cigarettes, he found that many
of them hadn’t considered how they’ d cope with the urge to smoke. They had summoned the strength to quit, but couldn’t remain disciplined. The first time they
were offered a cigarette, they went back to smoking.?
If you’ve given up alcohol, rehearse your answer for when you’re offered
a drink. If you’re expecting to jog but wake up to a storm, have an indoor workout program ready.?
Be realistic. The strongest will may falter when the goal is to lose 50 pounds in three months or to exercise three hours a day. Add failure undercuts your
desire to try again.?
Sometimes it’s best to set a series of small goals instead of a single big
one. As in the Alcohohes Anonymous slogan “One day at a time, ” divide your objective into one-day segments, then renew your resolve the next day. At the end of a week, you’ll have a series of triumphs to look back on.?
Be patient. A strong will doesn’t develop overnight. It takes shape in inc
rements, and there can be setbacks. Figure out what caused you to backslide, and
redouble your efforts.?
When a friend of ours tried to give up cigarettes the first time, she failed. Analyzing her relapse, she realized she needed to do something with her hands
. On her second try, she took up knitting and brought out needles and yam every
time she was tempted to light up. Within months she had knitted a sweater for her husband-and seemed to be off cigarettes for good.?
Keep it up. A strong will becomes stronger each time it succeeds. If you’ve successfully mustered the willpower to kick a bad habit or leave a dead-end job, you gain confidence to confront other challenges.?
A record of success fosters an inner voice of confidence that, in the word
s of Assagioli, gives you “a firm foot on the edge of the precipice.” You may
face more difficult tasks, but you’ve conquered before, and you can conquer again.?

First read the question.?
32. The message of the passage is that shares can now be sold?
A. through the computer B. in the shop?
C. at the bank D. through the mail
Now go through the TEXT F quickly and answer the question.?
Investors seeking a cheap, no-frills way to sell privatisation shares need
look no further than the post box. ?
Most stockbrokers offer bargain-basement deals on postal trades. They are i
deal for selling a small holding for the lowest possible commission.?
But the arrangements leave investors at the mercy of the Royal Mail and a seller will not know in advance how much a sale will produce.?
Data processing engineer Mark Stanistreet of Bradford sold by post after buying a few National Power and Power Gen shares when they were privatised.?
He says. “I didn’t really know where to go to for help. An information slip
with the shares gave details of Yorkshire Building Society’s share shop service, which offered to sell for a flat fee of $ 5.”?
“It was an ideal first step that showed me how easy and cheap it is to sell shares, l have been investing in a small way since then.?
“I use Yorkshire’s telephone service, which has a $ 9 minimum fee.” Many stockbrokers offer postal deals as part of their usual dealing services, but clients may normally sell only big company or privatization shares this way.?
Share Hnk’s minimum postal commission is $ 7.50, Skipton Building Socie’s is $ 9 and Nat Weat’s is $ 9.95.?


First read the question.?
33. In the passage the author’ attitude towards the subject under discussion is ___.?
A. factual B. critical C. favourable D. ambiguous?
Now go through the TEXT G quickly and answer the question.?
With increasing prosperity, Westem European youth is having a fling that is
creating distinctive consumer and cultural patterns.?
The result has been the increasing emergence in Europe of that phenomenon well known in America as the “youth market. ”This is a market in which enterprising businesses cater to the demands of teenagers and older youths in all their rock mania and pop-art forms.?
In Western Europe, the youth market may appropriately be said to be in its
infancy. In some countries such as Britain, West Germany and France, it is more
advanced than in others. Some manifestations of the market, chiefly sociological
, have been recorded, but it is only just beginning to be the subject of organized consumer research and promotion.?
Characteristics of the evolving European youth market indicate dissimilarities as well as similarities to the American youth market.?
The similarities:?
The market’s basis is essentially the same-more spending power and freedom
to use it in the hands of teenagers and older youth. Young consumers also make
up an increasingly high proportion of the population.?
As in the United States, youthful tastes in Europe extend over a similar range of products-records and record players, transistor radios, leather jackets and “way out,” extravagantly styled clothing, cosmetics and soft drinks. Generally it now is difficult to tell in which direction trans-Atlantic teenage influences are flowing.?
Also, a pattern of conformity dominates European youth as in this country,
though in Britain the object is to wear clothes that “make the wearer stand out,” but also make him “in”, such as tight trousers and precisely tailored jackets.?
Worship and emulation of “idols” in the entertainment field, especially the
“ pop” singers and other performers is pervasive. There is also the same exuberance and unpredictability in sudden fad switches. In Paris, buyers of stores catering to the youth market carefully watch what dress is being worn by a popular television teenage singer to be ready for a sudden demand for copies. In Stockholm other followers of teenage fads call the youth market “attractive but irrational.”?
The most obvious differences between the youth market in Europe and that in
the United States is in size. In terms of volume and variety of sales, the market in Europe is only a shadow of its American counterpart, but it is a growing shadow.?
But there are also these important dissimilarities generally with the American youth market:?
In the European youth market, unlike that of the United States, it is the working youth who provides the bulk of purchasing power.?
On the average, the school-finishing age still tends to be 14 years. This is the maximum age to which compulsory education extends, and with Europe’s industrial manpower shortage, thousands of teenage youths may soon attain incomes equal in many cases to that of their fathers.?
Although, because of general prosperity, European youths are beginning to continue school studies beyond the compulsory maximum age, they do not receive anything like the pocket money or “allowances” of American teenagers. The Europe
an average is about $ 5 to $ 10 a month.?
Working youth, consequently, are the big spenders in the European youth market, but they also have less leisure than those staying on at school, who in mm have less buying power.?


First read the question.?
34. The passage mainly ___.?
A. discusses patterns in company car use?
B. advertises famous British company cars?
C. recommends inexpensive company cars?
D. introduces different models of cars?
Now go through the TEXT H quickly and answer the question.?
Motorists would rather pay more tax than lose the place in the corporate pecking order conferred on them by their company cars.?
And it is the company car—which accounts for half of all new motor sales each year—which continues to be the key method of measuring your progress up the greasy pole.?
Although a Roll-Royce or Bentley is the ultimate success symbol, a Jaguar is still desired by most top directors, according to the survey by top people’s
pay and perks experts at the Monks Partnership.?
About 40 percent of company cars are perks rather than necessities for the
job, even though the average company car driver with a 1500cc engine is paying
more than three times as much in tax compared to a decade ago.?
Average cash allowances for a company car rise from 1,500 for those whose job requires them to have four wheels, to £ 4,000 for chief executives.?
For company chairmen, the BMW 7 series and Jaguar’s Daimler Double Six top
the list of favoured cars , with upper range Mercedes-Benz models close behind.
The chief executive’s tastes follow a similar pattern with Jaguar’s Sovereign 4.0 litre and XJ 63.2, Mercedes-Benz’s 320/300 and the BMW 7-series proving
most popular.?
For other directors, the BMW 5 series is tops, followed by the Mercedes-Ben
z 200 series, Jaguar’s XJ 63.2 and the Rover 800 series.?
Senior managers favour the BMW 3 and 5 series, depending on their rank and
company size. ?
Sales representatives drive the 1.8 and 1.6 litre Ford Mondeos, Rover 200 and 400 series and Peugeot’s 405.?
Top of the prohibited list are sports cars and convertibles.?
But British policies are being relaxed, with 64 per cent of companies offering Japanese cars. The practice of employees trading up by making cash contribution to the value of the car they want is becoming more common, with some from reporting take-up rates in excess of 70 per cent.?

First read the questions.?
35. ___ deals with Marx’s intellectual impact.?
A. Chapter Ⅰ B. Chapter Ⅱ?
C. Chapter Ⅲ D. Chapter Ⅳ?
36. The chapter that discusses an important source of learning in high-technology industries is ___.?
A. Chapter Ⅲ B. Chapter Ⅳ?
C. Chapter Ⅴ D. Chapter Ⅵ?
37. The role of market forces in innovative activities is addressed in ___.?
A. Part Ⅰ B. Part Ⅱ?
C. Part Ⅲ D. Part Ⅴ?
Now go through the TEXT I quickly and answer the questions.?
The book opens with a broad survey, in Part Ⅰ, of the historical literature
on technical change. It attempts to provide a guide to a wide range of writings
that illuminate technological change as a historical phenomenon. The first chap
ter discusses aspects of the conceptualization of technological change and then
goes on to consider what the literature has had to say on(l) the rate of technological change, (2) the forces influencing its direction, (3) the speed with which new technologies have diffused, and (4) the impact of technological change on the growth in productivity.?
A separate chapter is devoted to Marx. Marx’s intellectual impact has been
so pervasive as to rank him as a major social force in history, as well as an armchair interpreter of history.?
Part II is, in important respects, the core of the book. Each of its chapters advances an argument about some significant characteristics of industrial technologies. Chapter 3 explores a variety of less visible forms in which technological improvements enter the economy. Chapter 4 explicitly considers some significant characteristics of different energy forms. It examines some of the complexities of the long-term interactions between technological change and energy resources.?
Chapter 5, “On Technological Expectations,” addresses an issue that is simultaneously relevant to a wide range of industries—indeed, to all industries that are experiencing, or are expected to experience, substantial rates of technical improvement.?
The last two chapters of Part Ⅱ are primarily concerned with issues of greatest relevance to high-technology industries. Chapter 6, “Learning by Using,
” identifies an important source of learning that grows out of actual experience in using products characterized by a high degree of system complexity. In contrast to learning by doing, which deals with skill improvements that grow out of the
productive process, learning by using involves an experience that begins where
learning by doing ends.?
The final chapter in Part Ⅱ , “How Exogenous Is Science?” looks explicitly
at the nature of science technology interactions in high-technology industries.
It examines some of the specific ways in which these industries have been drawing upon the expanding pool of scientific knowledge and techniques.?
The three chapters constituting Part Ⅲ share a common concern with the role of market forces in shaping both the rate and direction of innovative activities, They attempt to look into the composition of forces constituting the demand
and the supply for new products and processes, especially in high-technology industries.?
Chapter 8 examines the history of technical change in the commercial aircraft industry over a fifty-year period 1925 - 1975.?
Finally, the two chapters of Part Ⅳ place the discussion of technological
change in an international context, with the first chapter oriented toward its
long history and second toward the present and the future. Chapter 11 pays primary attention to the transfer of industrial technology from Britain to the world-
wide industrialization, because nineteenth-century industrialization was, in considerable measure,the story of the overseas transfer of the technologies already
developed by the first industrial society. The last chapter speculates about the prospects for the future from an American perspective, a perspective that is often dominated by apprehension over the loss of American technological leadership, especially in high-technology industries. By drawing upon some of the distinctive characteristics of high-technology industries, an attempt is made to identify possible elements of a future scenario.?
First read the questions.?
38. Who can enter the contest??
A. Postgraduates. B. Undergraduates. C. Journalists.D. Teachers.?
39. Which of the following entry rules is NOT correct??
A. Submissions had been published within a specified period.?
B. No limits are set on content or length of the submission.?
C. Each entrant can submit no more than one entry.?
D. A cover letter by the entrant is required.?
Now go through the TEXT J quickly and answer the questions.?
PURPOSE: The Nation Institute/I. F. Stone Award recognizes excellence in student journalism. Entries should exhibit the uniquely independent journalistic tradition of I. F. Stone. A self-described “Jeffersonian Marxist, ”Stone combined
progressive polities, investigative zeal and a compulsion to tell the truth wit
h a commitment to human rights and the exposure of injustice. As Washington edit
or of the Nation magazine and founder of the legendary I. F. Stone’s Weekly, he
specialized in publishing information ignored by the mainstream media (which he
often found in The Congressional Record and other public documents overlooked by
the big-circulation dailies).?
ELIGIBILITY: The contest is open to all undergraduate students enrolled in
a U. S. college. Articles may be submitted by the writers themselves or nominated by editors of student publications or faculty members. While entries originally published in student publications are preferred, all articles will be considered provided they were not written as part of a student’s regular course work.
THE PRIZE: The article that, in the opinion of the judges, represents the most outstanding example of student journalism in the tradition of I. F. Stone will be published in a fall issue of The Nation. The winner will receive a cash award of $ 1,000. The Nation reserves the right to edit the winning article to conform to the space limitations of the magazine. Announcement of the winning article will be made in The Nation in the fall of 1994.?
DEADLINE: All entries must be postmarked by June 29,1994.?
ENTRY RULES: All entries must have been written or published between June 3
0, 1993 and June 29, 1994. Please send 2 photocopies.?
Each writer may submit up to three separate entries. A series of related articles will be considered as a single entry. Investigative articles are particularly encouraged. There are no restrictions as to scope, content or length.?
Accompanying material in support of entries is not required, but entrants are encouraged to submit a cover letter explaining the context of the submitted story, along with a brief biographical note about the author. Elaborate presentations are neither required nor desired. Entries will not be returned.?
Judges reserve the right to authenticate, accept or disallow entries at their discretion. The decision of the judges is final.?
All entries must include the writer’s school, home address and telephone number.?
CAI J.(212) 463 - 9270?



First read the question.?
40.According to the holiday advertisement, $ 939 is for a ___.?
A. two-week holiday in October?
B. two-week holiday in November?
C. three-week holiday in November?
D. three-week holiday in October?
Now go through the TEXT K quickly and answer the question.?
What price paradise??
Less than you could possibly imagine on this incredible value holiday with
Page & Moy, the UK’s No 1 tour operator to Hawaii.?
You can enjoy three weeks for the price of two at the Outrigger Village Hotel for just $ 899 during November or $ 939 in October.?
The PoLarryesians call Hawaii “Paradise on earth”. You’ll soon see why, whils
t enjoying the facilities of the Outrigger Village Hotel including pool, bars, restaurant and shopping arcade, and just a five minute walk from the legendary Waikiki beach.?
Life can be as busy or as relaxing as you like——we can even help you create your own itinerary of excursions to the other islands, each stunningly beautiful but very different.?
To start your holiday you can choose a 2 night stay in San Francisco, Los Angeles or as Vegas absolutely free.?
Join us in the tropical paradise of Hawaii-2 weeks from an unrepeatable price of $ 899 with a 3rd week free.?
2 nights in San Francisco, Los Angeles or Las Vegas.?
Scheduled flights from London/Manchester/Birmingham.?
Transfers between airport and hotels (except Las Vegas)?
14 nights accommodation in Hawaii-3rd week free.?
Traditional Lei greeting.?
Services of experienced local travel representatives?
Free travel bag.?
Holiday Delay Insurance.?
试卷二 (120 min)???

Part Ⅳ

Translation (60 min)

Translate the following text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.?
Translate the following underlined part of the text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.
Opera is expensive: that much is inevitable. But expensive things are not inevit
ably the province of the rich unless we abdicate society’s power of choice. We
can choose to make opera, and other expensive forms of culture, accessible to those who cannot individually pay for it. The question is: why should we? Nobody denies the imperatives of food, shelter, defence, health and education. But even in a prehistoric cave, mankind stretched out a hand not just to eat, drink or fight, but also to draw. The impulse towards culture, the desire to express and explore the world through imagination and representation is fundamental. In Europe, this desire has found fulfillment in the masterpieces of our music, art, literature and theatre. These masterpieces are the touchstones for all our efforts; they are the touchstones for the possibilities to which human thought and imagination may aspire; they carry the most profound messages that can be sent from one human to another. ?

Part Ⅴ

Writing (60 min)
Some people hold the view that a student’s success in university study follows the same pattern as that of fanning, which is characterized by the sowing the seeds, nurturing growth and harvesting the rewards’ process. Write an essay of about 300 words on the topic given below to support this view with your own exp
erience as a university student.?
In the first part of your writing you should present your thesis statement
, and in the second part you should support the thesis statement with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural
conclusion with a summary.?
Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriacy. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.?
Write your response on ANSWER SHEET FOUR.




Good morning, everyone. Today we’re going to talk about acid rain. You may wonder what is acid rain. Well, it is almost impossible to describe the mathematical relationship between what goes up as pollutant emissions and what comes down
as acid rain. But we do know the primary source of acid rain is the power station smoke stack. The pollutants combine with moisture in the atmosphere and they
fall as an acid mixture raising the rain. Do you know what the Germans call this acid rain??
The royal water, I mean the acid rain, falls in rain or snow on the romantic Black Forest ,and attacks the soil. Micro-organisms within the soil collapse
and metals harmful to trees like aluminum are leaked out. At the same time, the
acid rain attacks the leaves and dissolve their waxy coating. The leaves then shrivel and die. About one in every ten trees in the Black Forest is a fir. 76 per
cent of all firs are dying. The first symptoms of death by pollution in a fir is
the yellowing of the needles. At the back of the fir needle, you can see the pores through which the plant breathes. The acid rain destroys those pores, and prevent them from closing. So on a warm day, the plant loses all of its moisture through those open pores. The needles, as a result, turn yellow and die.?
The statistics that are available now are horrifying. Of these trees in the Black Forest, 41% of all spruce are diseased, 43% of all pine are diseased, 2
6% of beech trees, 76% of all fir trees and 16% of all others are dying. Environmental groups like Green Peace campaign around Europe are trying to stop the acid rain.?
Germany is now leading the way in attacking part of the problem. Motor vehicles are thought to contribute significantly to the pollution of the atmosphere. The by-products of motor vehicle emissions are considered dangerous to plants,and humans as well.?
In order to clean up motor vehicle emissions, all new cars in Germany must meet emission standards and be fitted with a device called “catalytic converter”.?
Use of the converters requires people to switch to lead-free petrol. This might explain why the Europeans are reluctant to follow Germany’s lead in cleaning up its motor vehicle emission. It’s unlikely that Germany will force her European neighbours to change to lead-free petrol. The reason is that though her neighbours may be slow in cleaning up their smoke stacks, they will have to comply with the new motor vehicle requirements if they want the wealthy German tourists driving across their borders.?
Certainly, the menace of acid rain knows no borders because it gathers in the rain clouds and goes with the prevailing winds. So Canada’s lakes die from America’s pollution. Germany’s trees die from her next-door neighbors. Sweden’s lakes fall victim to Britain’s industry. And there are many similar examples. And I won’t go into them because of time constraint. ?
Like Germany, the United States also introduced strict clean air-controls on motor vehicle emissions in the mid-70s as part of their efforts to reduce acid rain. But throughout the northern hemisphere it’s agreed that such measures, though
important, will be of minimal effect. If we are to save what’s left of forests and lakes in the world, a strict international emission standard must be uniformly imposed on industry. However, its unlikely that will be agreed upon before many more acres of precious forests are destroyed.??

Interviewer: Good morning Mr. Pitt. Do sit down.?
Pitt: Thank you.?
Interviewer: First of all, Mr. Pitt. I’d like you to tell me a bit about what you’ve been doing.?
Pitt: Well, I left school after I’d done my A levels.?
Interviewer: Ah, yes, A levels. What subjects did you take??
Pitt: I took four subjects, French, German, chemistry and art. Chemistry wasn’t
my cup of tea, but art has always been.?
Interviewer: Art??
Pitt: Well, I really wanted to study art. It didn’t turn out like that, because
a friend of my fathers offered me a job. It’s an accountant in London. A quite big firm, you know.?
Interviewer: I see. A firm of accountants. Interesting. In your application, you
say that you only spent nine months with this firm of accountants. Why was that??
Pitt: It was nearly a year actually. Well, to be quite honest, I didn’t like it.
I just couldn’t seem to get interested in the job although there were fairly good prospects. So I got a place at the art college to do a three-year diploma course.?
Interviewer: I see. Now Mr. Pitt, what about hobbies and interests? Er, what do
you do in your spare time??
Pitt: I like jazz, traditional and folk music. I don’t play of course, but I go

to quite a lot of concerts and I go to the theater occasionally and act a bit my
self. I’m in the local Germanic society. I read quite a lot and I’ve done a bit
of photography. Also, I’ve traveled a lot. Hitchhike a dolly for Europe. Last year that was.?
Interviewer: Very interesting. Mr. Pitt. I think, that’s all I wanted to ask about your background. Now let’s talk about the management trainee scheme. What exactly do you think a manager does??
Pitt: I don’t know a great deal about the work.?
Interviewer: But you have got any ideas about it. You must have thought about it.?
Pitt: Well, I... Suppose he has a lot of... a... what is called policy making to
do. And... he has to know how to work with people, and all about the company. ?
Interviewer: Mm. ?
Pitt: Yes, I... should think a manager must know something about all aspects of the work.?
Interviewer: Yes, that’s right. We like our executive staff to undergo a thorough training. Young men on our trainee scheme have to work through every branch in the company.?
Pitt: Oh.?
Interviewer: And one of them is accountancy. Presumably you wouldn’t like that.?
Pitt: Well, if I had to do it, I suppose... But I was thinking that my French an
d German would mean that I could specialize in overseas work. I’d like to be some sort of an export salesman and travel abroad.?
Interviewer: You know, the glamour of traveling abroad disappears when you’ve got a hard job of work to do. It’s not all fun and game.?
Pitt: Oh yes, I realize that. It’s just that my knowledge of languages would be
Interviewer: Now, Mr. Pitt, is there anything you want to ask me??
Pitt: Well, there is one or two things. I’d like to know if I have to sign a contract and what the salary and prospects are.?
Interviewer: With our scheme, Mr. Pitt, there is no contract involved. Your progress is kept under constant review. If we at any time decide we don’t like you,
then that’s that. We reserve the right to dismiss you.?
Pitt: I see.?
Interviewer: Of course. You have the same choice about us.?
Pitt: Fair enough. And what about the salary??
Interviewer: As for salary, you’ll be on our fixed scales, starting at 870 pounds. For the successful trainee, the prospects are very good.?
Pitt: I see. Thank you very much.?
Interviewer: That’s all, Mr. Pitt. You should hear from us in a couple of weeks.
One way or the other, or we may ask you to come back for another chat. Thank you.?
Pitt: Goodbye, Mrs. Williams.?
News Item 1(For Question 11)?
Russian authorities are questioning five men suspected of taking about a do
zen school children hostage and commandeering a helicopter for a ten million dollar ransom. The alleged gunmen were captured early Monday in southern Russia ending a four-day drama. The kidnappers initially demanded to be flown to Iran
. A police now believes their only aim was ten million dollars paid by the government most of which has now been recovered.??
News Item 2 ( For Question 12 )?
The United States has announced that it’s to send one thousand more troops
to Panama to increase security at Cuban refugee camps where riots broke out last week. Officials in Washington said that the troops will be added to the two thousand who are already in Panama. More than 200 American soldiers were injured when the Cubans, angry at delays in moving them out of Panama, attacked their guards and broke out of the camps. The refugees have been in Panama since September.?
News Item 3 ( For Question 13 )?
U.S. lawmakers have criticized- the recent US-North Korean deal calling for
freeing Pyongyang’s nuclear program in return for US diplomatic and economic concessions. They express concern that the North may take the concessions and break
the accord. Other lawmakers noted that inspection of Pyongyang’s nuclear site is not required for at least five years. The U. S. chief negotiator defended the
accord, saying he had made no compromises that would damage U. S. national security. ?
News Item 4 ( For Questions 14-15 )?
Italy, a major producer of landmines, has joined the campaign to ban the weapons which kill and maim many thousands of people every year. The Chamber of Deputies, the Lower House of Parliament voted 402 to 2 with four abstentions to ratify a 1980 convention that will commit Italy to drastically limit the use of landmines and help to clear mined areas. Parliament also pledged Italy’s support
for efforts led by the Secretary General of the United Nations, the International Red Cross and the Swedish Government to promote a total international ban on
the production and export of the mines. The Italian Parliament acted at the request of Defense Minister.??
Good morning everyone. First about your second assignment. I’d like to re
mind you that your second assignment should be handed in by next Friday, You can either put it in my pigeon hole or leave it with the department secretary. Now, let’s
get down to the lecture.?
Today the lecture is on credit or, to be more specific, on credit cards. I’m sure you must have heard of some credit cards like the Visa card, which is an internationally used card or the Great Wall card issued by the Bank of China.
In order to give a better understanding we’ll discuss it in sonic detail. Many
businesses, such as department stores, restaurants, hotels and airline companies
use a credit system for selling their products and services. In a credit system
the seller agrees to sell something to the buyer without immediately receiving
cash. He receives the goods or services immediately and promises to pay for them
later. This buy-now-pay-later credit system is quite old. There are two types of credit cards. One type is issued directly by a store to a customer. Many large
department stores issue credit cards to their customers. The store credit card
can be used to make purchases only at a particular store. For example, if you have a credit card from Store A, then you can only buy things in that store. Other
stores would not accept it.?
The other kind of credit cards is issued by a credit company. Credit cards
from credit companies can be used to buy things almost anywhere. If you have a major credit card, you can buy air plane tickets, stay in hotels and eat in restaurants with it. Most large credit companies are connected to large banks. So if
you want a credit card from a credit company, you generally have to make an application at a bank. After an applicant receives a credit card, he or she can make
purchases using the card. The credit company sends the customer a statement of
purchases at the end of each month. Generally the Customer has to pay 25 to 50 percent of their (his) credit bill every month. The customer pays directly to the credit company and the credit company pays to the store or hotel or restaurant.
There are some advantages and some disadvantages to using credit cards. The biggest advantage for the consumer is expressed by the phrase “Buy now, pay later
This means that the consumer can purchase what he wants when he wants it. There
is no need to save up money in advance. Another advantage of having a credit card is that it protects the owner, if a credit card is lost or stolen, the owner
only has to call the credit company, and the credit company will stop the credit
card number, No one else can use it. So the owner doesn’t have to worry about
losing the card.?
Another advantage of the credit card system is that the consumer receives a
record of his or her purchases. Every month the credit customer receives a bill
. The bill has a list of all purchases from that month. This makes it easier to
remember when and where purchases are made. And another advantage is that credit
cards can be used when something unexpected happens. Many kinds of professional people - plumbers, taxi drivers, doctors and dentists
will accept credit cards in an emergency. This is very important if you don’t
have any cash with you.?
However, having said all that, using credit cards has one major advantage,
that is consumers tend to overspend their money. They spend more than they make.
If a consumer buys a lot of things on credit, he or she has to make large payments each month. Sometimes it becomes impossible to keep up with the payments. As
a result, the consumer’s life becomes more and more difficult. If the consumer

cannot make the payments, his card will be taken away. It will be very difficult
for him to get another credit card in the future.?
To sum up briefly, we can see a credit buying system has both advantages an
d disadvantages. On the one hand it gives people convenience in life and on the
other hand it tends to encourage overspending.??

【问句译文】在Black Forest里,酸雨对下列哪一项没有造成危害??
【详细解答】从录音中可知,“ …the acid rain,…and attacks the soil. … the acid rain attacks the leaves … 76 percent of all firs are dying.”,这里只有B项未涉及
【问句译文】在Black Forest里,冷杉死亡的比例是多少??
【详细解答】解答本题的关键句是“…76% of all fir trees and l6% of all others are
【详细解答】录音中讲到:“…all new cars in Germany must now meet new emission standards and be fitted with a device called catalytic converter.”这句话与选项A的
【详细解答】解答本题的关键句是“It’s unlikely that Germany will force her European
neighbours to change to lead-free petrol.”选项D与这句话的意思恰好相反,故为正
【详细解答】当面试者问到“What subjects did you take?”时, Pitt先生回答说“I took
four subjects...Chemistry wasn’t my cup of tea but art has always been.”,
由此可知, Pitt先生擅长的学科是A。?
【详细解答】当面试者问道“What do you do in your spare time?”他回答道:“I like
jazz,traditional and folk music.I don’t play…”,文中的意思是他虽然喜欢音乐,
【详细解答】当面试者问道“What exactly do you think a manager does?”Pitt先生回答
说“I don’t know a great deal about the work…I,I,er,should think a manager must know,er,something about all aspects of the work.”从Pitt先生的吞吞吐吐的
【详细解答】解答本题的关键句是“I’d like to be some sort of an export salesman and
travel abroad.” 由此可知选项A为正确答案。?
【详细解答】面试者谈话最后说“As for salary,you’d be on our fixed scale starting at 870 pounds.” 由此可知选项C为正确答案。?
News Item 1?
News Item 2?
【详细解答】新闻中提到:“More than 200 American soldiers were injured when the Cuban boat people,angry at delays in moving them out of Panama.”这句话与选项A的
News Item 3?
【详细解答】新闻中提到:“They expressed concern that the North may take the diplomatic and economic concessions.”因此选项C正确。?
News Item 4?
【详细解答】新闻最后一句说“The Italian Parliament acted at the request of Defense
1.答案:limited/restricted ?
【详细解答】在介绍第一种信用卡时说“One type is issued directly by a store to a customer…Other stores would not accept it”由此可知,这种卡的使用是受限制的,只能
【详细解答】由“…you generally have to make an application at a bank.”可知,应
3.答案:purchases/transaction ?
【详细解答】解答本题要听清“The credit company sends the customer a statement of p
urchases at the end of each month.”?
【详细解答】由“Generally the customer has to pay 25—50% of their credit bill every month.”这句话可直接得知此处应填写bill。?
【详细解答】由句子“This means that the consumer can purchase what he wants when h
e wants it.There is no need to save up money in advance.”可知,此处应填写necessary或essential。?
【详细解答】“…the consumer receives a record of his or her purchases.Every month the credit customer receives a bill.”即顾客每月都能收到一份定期的账单记录。
7.答案:place ?
【详细解答】“This makes it easier to remember when and where purchases are made.
【详细解答】只要听清 “Many kinds of professional people—plumbers,taxi-drivers,doctors and dentists will accept credit cards in an emergency.”就可直接填写emergency。?
9.答案:overspend ?
文中有答案:只要听清“…Consumers tend to overspend their money.”就可直接填写overspend。?
【详细解答】由“Sometimes it becomes impossible to keep up with the payments.”可
1.答案:can → must?
【详细解答】本题属动词不定式否定形式的误用。one’s desire to do sth.为固定搭配,意
为“去做……的欲望,想去做……”,其否定形式是在to前面加not,即one’s desire not
to do sth.意为“不愿去做……”。?
这里要表达“对……在意,在乎”,故应该用care about这一固定搭配,而care for意为“
【详细解答】本句中的get up out of his chair(从板凳上站起来)和announce his depart
ure (说他要离开)是两个衔接很紧的动作,共用助动词would,所以应将to删掉。?
词as不能表达“仿佛,好像”的意思,只有把它改成as if/though才合乎题意。?
【详细解答】文中要表达的意思是“他将首先做出的动作。”只有perform/do an action表
示“做动作”,而没有make an act这一表达方式。?
【详细解答】短文第三段首句说“The primary typefaces Garlan chose for this task are
Times Roman,for a more readable body type,and Bauer Bodoni,for a more stylish and flexible display type (article titles,large initials,and so on).” 由此
可知,新的设计包括对字体与杂志结构的调整,新选用的主要字体是Times Roman和Bauer B
odoni;第三句接着说“The articles in the front of the magazine,which once flowed into one another,now stand on their own,to gain prominence.”这句话表明杂志
17.答案:A ?
【详细解答】短文第四段最后一句说“Garlan was in various ways assisted in the redesign by the entire art-department staff…” 由此可知,Garlan作为艺术总监,在重新
更不是只有封面设计者 (cover artist)参与了这一新的设计。因此正确答案为A (art dire
ctor和other artists一起参与了设计工作)。?
有一种文学性与新闻性并存的设计;最后作者指出Tudy Garlan对《大西洋月刊》的重新设
【详细解答】 短文第一段第五句说“And have you got the rest of volumes? You need the basic 22 plus the largely decennial supplements to bring the total to 31.”由

说明在选择谁应被收录进词典时没有遵照一定的原则,是不合理的。如第三段第一句说“There remains the dinner party game of who’s in,who’s out.”这表明作者认为编者在

then Crippen was reputed as the first murderer to be caught by telegraphy.”通

of birth and death are not recorded);接着说对于画家Levina Teerlinc的描述也不能
让人觉得她是位值得纪念的艺术家(Doesn’t seem to qualify her as a memorable artist
【详细解答】短文第一段提到“But,as any geriatric ward shows,that is not the same
as to confer enduring mobility,awareness and autonomy.Extending life grows me
dically feasible,but it is often a life deprived of everything.” 由此可知,延
【详细解答】短文第二段第二句说:“It would mirror the fate of athletics,in which disproportionate energies and resources-not least medical ones, like illegal s
teroids-are now invested to shave records by milliseconds.”由此表明靠药物来延
【详细解答】短文第一段首句说“The biggest problem facing Chile as it promotes itself as a tourist destination to be reckoned with, is that it is at the end of the earth.”,此话告诉我们,智利在旅游业开发方面遇到的最大障碍是它位于地球末端。由

【详细解答】短文第二段第二句说“But it is succeeding, not only in existing market
s like the USA and Western Europe but in new territories,in particular the Far
【详细解答】短文第五段通过具体例子说明了它的许多吸引处,但第六段提出:“But the trump card is the Andes mountain range.”这与选项C的意思一致,故答案选C。?
【详细解答】短文第九段首句说“Internal transport links are being improved and luxury hotels are being built in one of its national parks.”由此可知,智利国内交通
【详细解答】短文倒数第二段第一句说“The policy of opening up Antarctica to tourism
is also politically sensitive.” 由此可排除选项B“政治上的敏感”;该段最后一说
“There is a genuine fear that areas of Chile will suffer the cultural destruction…,”由此可知,人们担心旅游业开发会破坏当地文化,由此可排除选项C;短文倒数
第三段第二句说“Indigenous and environmental groups, including Greenpeace, say that many parts of the Andes will suffer if they become over-developed. ”由此可
【详细解答】快速跳读各段的黑体小标题,“Be positive;Make up your mind; Sharpen your will;Expect trouble;Be realistic;Be patient;Keep it up.”由此可知,作者
【详细解答】文章的首句说“Investors seeking a cheap,no—frills way to sell privatisation shares need look no further than the postbox”即想出售私有股票的投资者如
【详细解答】文章在谈到各种型号的汽车时都涉及使用者的情况,如:“For company chairmen, the BMW 7 series and Jaguar’s Dainler Double Six top the list of favoured
cars,with upper range Mercedes-Benz models close behind.The chief executive’s tastes follow a similar pattern with Jaguar’s Sovereign 4.0 Litre and...Senior
managers favour the BMX 3 and 5 series…”,由此可以推知,正确的答案为A(讨论用
【详细解答】短文第一段提到第一部分的第一章谈论的内容是技术变革概念化的各个方面(aspects of the conceptualization of technological change),接着第二段提到:“A separate chapter is devoted to Marx.”由此可以推断a separate chapter指的是第二章
【详细解答】首先查找关键词important source of learning,找到短文第五段的“Chapter
6,‘Learning by Using,’identifies an important source of learning that grows
out of actual experience in using products characterized by a high degree of sys
tem complexity.” 由此句可直接选出正确答案D。?
【详细解答】通过查找关键词 role of market forces,在文中第七段首句说“The three chapters constituting Part Ⅲ share a common concern with the role of market forces in shaping both the rate and direction of innovative activities.”由此句可
TEXT J ?〖HJ0.85mm〗
【详细解答】本题应该在ELIGIBILITY中去找答案。这一段提到“The contest is open to al
l undergraduate students enrolled in a U.S.college.”由此可知,选项B为正确答
【详细解答】选项A、B、D都能在ENTRY RULES中找到。而选项C“每位选手只能交一篇参赛文章
”与文中的“…Each writer may submit up to three separate entries…”相矛盾,故C为正确答案。?
【详细解答】快速查找关键词$939,在第三段找到:“You can enjoy three weeks for the
price of two at the Outrigger Village Hotel for just $899 during November or $93
9 in October.”由此可知,花$939可以于十月份在夏威夷的Outrigger山庄度三周假。 ?
My advisor was an Asian American. He indulged himself in smoking and alcoholic drinking and was hot-tempered. But he appreciated the diligence and the sound basic knowledge of students of Asian origin very much, and shared their sentiments (understood their feeling). Therefore, of the six students who were permitted to study in his laboratory, only one was from Germany, the other five were al
l from Asia. He was so straight forward as to put up a note on the door of his lab, which read: “Research assistant in this lab must work seven days a week, from 10 a.m. to midnight every day, and must spare no effort (go all out) in work hours.“ He was well known throughout the campus for his strictness and severity.
During the three and a half years of my work there fourteen students entered his
lab, but only five left with a doctor’s degree. In the summer of 1990, irrespective of other’s advice, I forced myself to receive his assistance and began my hard journey for schooling.?

Sowing the Seeds, Nurturing Growth and Harvesting the Rewards?
In spring we sow the seeds in the soil. We look after them and cut off seeds for them. And in autumn, we are very happy to get harvest. A student’s success
in university study follows the same pattern as that of farming. The teachers are the seeds in our mind by giving lectures to us. We can get nothing without hard working. That is to say “No pains, no gains.”?
First, if we hope a harvest, the seeds play the fundamental role, or we can
say that it is ery important to listen carefully to the teachers. In my point of view, it is the teacher who sows the seeds. What is seed? It is knowledge. Some students sleep in the class. They carry nothing with them when they leave the classroom. That is to say they don’t get seeds from the teachers. They are not interested in the lectures. They like to stay up all night to review the lesson. Now it seems that they are working hard in a field, which has no seeds in the soil. It sounds ridiculous, isn’t it? Therefore, to absorb in class is very important.?
Second, nurturing growth is the key point in farming, or we can say that hard working for the students themselves is the most important. We can imagine that we sow the seeds in the soil and then don’t pay attention to them any more. Then how can we get a harvest? If we don’t water the seeds, they will dry and can never become a plant. If we don’t get rid of the seeds, the plant will die of malnutrition. It is the same in study. Listen carefully to the teachers and get the seeds in our mind and notebooks. But we must review the lesson. We must grasp the knowledge. We should borrow more books which are relevant to the class from library and absorb the knowledge. This is the most important process in study. When you say: “ Oh, the knowledge is mine now. It doesn’t belong to the teachers any longer,” you finish the hard work process in study.?
Third, harvesting is also an important process. That is to say that you must learn to use what you have studied to get a good result in examination. Some students work all day long. They usually fail in the exam. They are worried before exam and forget everything when enter the classroom for exam. They got the seeds, they devoted all their energy to the field but they don’t know how to harvest their rewards. So let’s learn the skill of harvest and get our rewards. ?
To sum up, the three processes are all important if we want to be a successful student. Without one of them, we will fail in our study. Try to improve your
self in the three aspects; you can certainly become an excellent student.?
consumerism 用户至上主义?
prominence 突出,显著;突出物?
dilemma 进退两难的局面,困难的选择?
relapse 复发,回复原状?
emergence 浮现,露出?
emulation 竞争,效法?
diffuse 散播,传播?
be provided with 提供,拥有?
in the shade 逊色?
attest to 证实,证明?
the law of diminishing returns 收益递减规律