新托福口语考试的评分标准与其它外语类考试的口语部分有本质上的区别。在解决这两个问题之后,我们来分析六个Tasks的每种题及应试方法的指导。希望考生在看完本文之后能明白考试方向,并根据自己的特点去制定口语复习策略。

  首先,考生在口语考试中所作的回答在ETS中心被称为Response,就是考生对口语考试的回应,或直接说就是考生的答案。考生在口语考试中的Response经过数字录音并被发送到ETS在线评估网络。每个考生的考试录音都至少有三个以上的评分老师进行评估,而且有的时候一个考生的同一个部分的评估也由两个评分教师评估,这样来保证学生分数的公正性。考生的分数范围是0-4分,4分为满分,0分是考试没做任何回答。考完之后,ETS在线评估要把考生的分数分别从0-4分转换成0-30分,这样就是大家的托福口语成绩。我们会在后面介绍分数是如何被转换的。评估教师主要是在Topic Development, Delivery and Language Use这三个方面进行评估。

  第一、在考生的学术能力方面:有关考生的Topic Development, 评估老师主要的衡量标准是考生有没有很好的处理考试中出现的话题,并评估考生是否具备讨论与话题相关信息的能力。在口语考试的后面四个Tasks,评估教师还要就考生是否具备对话题的Synthesize和Summarize的能力进行评估。Synthesize的主要意思是to form by combining parts of elements,考生要做的是根据考试中出现的信息,形成自己对事情的看法。Summarize的主要意思是to comprehensively and briefly abstract the topic, 考生需要做的是全面,简短的总结考试中出现的场景或学术lectures中的要点并能最终表述出来。

  第二、在考生的语言表达能力方面:有关考生的Delivery方面的能力,评估教师主要在考生语言表述能力上的评分。考生的英语表述是否清楚、流畅,并且在整个口语考试过程之中,考生整体上的口语考试部分的表现是否具备整体上的一致性和可理解性。这里边需要强调的是“一致性”指的两层意思。首先是考生在整体口语考试的过程中,口语整体的上表现水平;其次是考生在语言层面上对话题的阐述具有一致性,也就是考生的口语具备连贯性和逻辑性。有关Language Use方面,评估教师主要在语言的准确性方面对考生的Response进行评估,如语法及语言使用准确性方面等等。这三个方面是评估教师的主要出发点。

  其次,我们来详细分析口语考试每个分数段的评分标准:

  A、四分评分标准

   ANSWER TO QUESTION
   The student answers the question thoroughly.
  
  COMPREHENSIBILITY
   The student can be understood completely.
  
  ORGANIZATION
   The student‘s response is well organized and developed.
  
  FLUENCY
   The student‘s speech is generally fluent.
  
  PRONUNCIATION
   The student has generally good pronunciation.
  
  GRAMMAR
   The student uses advanced grammatical structures with a high degree of accuracy.
  
  VOCABULARY
   The student uses advanced vocabulary with a high degree of accuracy.

  从上表,我们能够得知,口语分别从六个方面对考生的英文水平进行评估。后四个,流利程度、发音、语法及词汇与雅思口语考试评分标准相当。不同的是,新托福口语考试在语法和词汇的使用上要求更高一些。而发音和流利程度只要求是generally达到标准就好(generally=for most parts)。语法和词汇方面则是high degree of accuracy。大家对词法和语法方面经常出问题的话,这时要注意了。前三个,完整回答、可理解及组织语言方面,我们可以发现完整回答要求大家全面的阐述话题;学生自己的说的话应该能够被理解;组织语言方面,考生的Response应该组织严密,逻辑性强。这就是四分对各位考生的要求。

  B、3分评分标准

  ANSWER TO QUESTION
   The student answers the questions adequately but not thoroughly.
  
  COMPREHENSIBILITY
   The student can generally be understood.
  
  ORGANIZATION
   The student‘s response is organized basically and is not thoroughly developed.
  
  FLUENCY
   The student‘s speech is generally fluent, with minor problems.
  
  PRONUNCIATION
   The student has generally good pronunciation, with minor problems.
  
  GRAMMAR
   The student uses either accurate easier grammatical structures or more advanced grammatical structures with some errors.
  
  VOCABULARY
   The student uses either accurate easier vocabulary or more advanced vocabulary with some errors.

        从上表中,我们发现3分的评分标准已经降低了很多。大家注意副词及转折词的使用,如adequately but…。在发音和流利程度方面,3分允许大家出现失误。在语法和词汇方面,已经允许考生使用简单语法及单词,而且可以出现一些失误。相对于国内能拿到大学英语四、六级的学生,3分一般都是可以拿到的。

  C、2及1分评分标准

  2分

  ANSWER TO QUESTION
   The student discusses information from the task but does not answer the question directly.
  
  COMPREHENSIBILITY
   The student is not always intelligible.
  
  ORGANIZATION
   The student‘s response is not clearly organized and is incomplete or contains some inaccurate points.
  
  FLUENCY
   The student‘s speech is not very fluent and has a number of problems.
  
  PRONUNCIATION
   The student‘s pronunciation is not very clear, with a number of problems.
  
  GRAMMAR
   The student has a number of errors in grammar or uses only very basic grammar fairly accurately.
  
  VOCABULARY
   The student has a number of errors in vocabulary or uses only very basic vocabulary fairly accurately.

  1分

  ANSWER TO QUESTION
   The student‘s response is only slightly related to the topic.
  
  COMPREHENSIBILITY
   The student is only occasionally intelligible.
  
  ORGANIZATION
   The student‘s response is not clearly organized and is only minimally on the topic.
  
  FLUENCY
   The student has problems with fluency that make-the response difficult to understand.
  
  PRONUNCIATION
   The student has problems with pronunciation that make the response difficult to understand.
  
  GRAMMAR
   The student has numerous errors in grammar that interfere with meaning.
  
  VOCABULARY
   The student has numerous errors in vocabulary that interfere with meaning.

  我们发现2分及1分的平分标准已经比较底了。所以一般考生参加过培训都可以应对2分及1分的标准。

  总体上来看,新托付口语考试只有4分比较难取得,而1-3分都可以在培训后取得不错的分数。