1. clothes, cloth, clothing
clothes统指各种衣服,谓语动词永远是复数, cloth指布,为不可数名词 clothing 服装的总称,指一件衣服用a piece of, an article of
2. incident, accident
incident指小事件, accident指不幸的事故He was killed in the accident.
3. amount, number
amount后接不可数名词, number后接可数名词 a number of students
4. family, house, home
home 家,包括住处和家人,house房子,住宅,family家庭成员. My family is a happy one.
5. sound, voice, noise
sound自然界各种各样的声音,voice人的嗓音,noise噪音I hate the loud noise outside.
6. photo, picture, drawing
Let's go and see a good picture.
7. vocabulary, word
vocabulary词汇,一个人拥有的单词量,word具体的单词He has a large vocabulary.
8. population, people
population人口,人数,people具体的人 China has a large population.
9. weather, climate
weather一天内具体的天气状况,climate长期的气候状况 The climate here is not good for you.
10. road, street, path, way
take this road; in the street, show me the way to the museum.
11. course, subject
course课程(可包括多门科目),subject科目(具体的学科)a summer course
12. custom, habit
custom传统风俗,习俗,也可指生活习惯,后接to do, habit生活习惯,习惯成自然,后接of doing. I've got the habit of drinking a lot.
13. cause, reason
cause 指造成某一事实或现象的直接原因,后接of sth./doing sth,reason用来解释某种现象或结果的理由,后接for sth./doing sth. the reason for being late
14. exercise, exercises, practice
Practice makes perfect.
15. class, lesson
作"课"解时,两者可以替换.指课文用lesson. 指班级或全体学生用class. lesson 6; class 5
16. speech, talk, lecture
speech指在公共场所所做的经过准备的较正式的演说,talk日常生活中的一般的谈话,讲话,lecture学术性的演讲,讲课 a series of lecture on…
17. officer, official
officer部队的军官,official政府官员 an army officer
18. work, job
二者均指工作。work不可数,job可数 a good job
19. couple, pair
couple主要指人或动物,pair多指由两部分组成的东西 a pair of trousers
20. country, nation, state, land
country侧重指版图,疆域,nation指人民,国民,民族,state侧重指政府,政体,land国土,国家 The whole nation was sad at the news.
21. cook, cooker
cook厨师,cooker厨具 He is a good cook.
22. damage, damages
damage不可数名词, 损害,损失; damages复数形式, 赔偿金 $900 damages
23. police, policeman
police警察的总称,后接复数谓语动词,policeman 指某个具体的警察 The police are questioning everyone in the house.
24. problem, question
problem常和困难连系,前面的动词常为think about, solve, raise,question常和疑问连系,多和ask, answer连用
25. man, a man
man人类,a man一个男人 Man will conquer nature.
26. chick, chicken
二者均可指小鸡,chicken还可以当鸡肉 The chicken is delicious.
27. telegram, telegraph
当电报解时,telegram指具体的,telegraph指抽象的 a telegram, by telegraph
28. trip, journey, travel, voyage
travel是最常用的,trip指短期的旅途,journey指稍长的旅途,voyage指海上航行a three-day trip
29. sport, game
sport多指户外的游戏或娱乐活动,如打球,游泳,打猎,赛马等;game指决定胜负的游戏,通常有一套规则 His favorite sport is swimming.
30. price, prize
price价格,prize奖,奖品,奖金 win the first prize The price is high/low.
31. a number of, the number of
a number of许多,谓语动词用复数。the number of…的数目,谓语动词用单数。The number of students is increasing.
32. in front of, in the front of
in front of范围外的前面,in the front of范围内的前面 In the front of the room sits a boy.
33. of the day, of a day
of the day每一天的,当时的,当代的, of a day暂时的,不长久的 a famous scientist of the day
34. three of us, the three of us
three of us我们(不止三个)中的三个,the three of us我们三个(就三个人)The three of us---Tom, Jack and I went to the cinema.
35. by bus, on the bus
by bus表手段,方式,不用冠词,on the bus表范围 They went there by bus.
36. for a moment, for the moment
for a moment 片刻,一会儿,for the moment暂时,一时 Thinking for a moment, he agreed.
37. next year, the next year
next year将来时间状语,the next year过去将来时间状语
He said he would go abroad the next year.
38. more than a year, more than one year
more than a year一年多,more than one year超过一年(两年或三年等)
39. take advice, take the(one's) advice
take advice征求意见,take the advice接受忠告 He refused to take the advice and failed again.
40. take air, take the air
take air传播,走漏,take the air到户外去,散步 We take the air every day.
41. in a word, in words
in a word总之,一句话, in words口头上 In a word, you are right.
42. in place of, in the place of
in place of代替,in the place of在…地方 A new building is built in the place of the old one.
43. in secret, in the secret
in secret秘密地,暗自地,偷偷地,一般用作状语;in the secret知道内情,知道秘密,
一般用作表语 My mother was in the secret from the beginning.
44. a girl, one girl
a girl可泛指所有女孩, one girl一个女孩 Can one girl carry such a big box?
45. take a chair, take the chair
take a chair相当于sit down坐下,take the chair开始开会
46. go to sea, by sea, by the sea
go to sea当海员,出航,by sea乘船,由海路, by the sea在海边 go by sea
47. the doctor and teacher, the doctor and the teacher
the doctor and teacher指一个人,既是医生又是老师,the doctor and the teacher两个人,一个医生和一个老师 the doctor and teacher is
48. in office, in the office
in office在职的,in the office在办公室里 He is in office, not out of office.
49. in bed, on the bed
in bed卧在床上,on the bed在床上 The book is on the bed. He is ill in bed.
50. in charge of, in the charge of
in charge of管理,负责照料, in the charge of由……照料 He is in charge of the matter. The matter is in the charge of her.
51. in class, in the class
in class在课上,in the class在班级里 He is the best student in the class.
52. on fire, on the fire
on fire着火,on the fire在火上 Put the food on the fire. The house is on fire.
53. out of question, out of the question
out of question毫无疑问的,out of the question不可能的
54. a second, the second
a second又一,再一,the second第…… He won the second prize.
55. by day, by the day
by day白天,by the day按天计算 The workers are paid by the day.
56. the people, a people
the people指人,a people指民族 The Chinese is a peace-loving people.
57. it, one
it同一物体,one同类不同一 I lost my pen. I have to buy a new one.
58. that, this
that指代上文所提到的,this导出下文所要说的 I was ill. That's why…
59. none, nothing, no one
none强调有多少,nothing, no one强调有没有,nothing指物,no one指人
--- How many…/How much…? --- None.
60. anyone, any one
anyone指人,不能接of,any one指人物均可,可接of any one of you
61. who, what
who指姓名或关系,what指职业或地位 What is your dad? He is a teacher.
62. what, which
Which do you prefer, bananas or apples?
63. other, another
other后接名词复数,another后接名词单数 other students, another student
64. not a little, not a bit
not a little非常,not a bit一点也不 I'm not a bit tired. 我一点儿也不累。
65. many, much, a lot of
many和可数名词连用,much和不可数名词连用,a lot of可数,不可数均可,但不用于否定句 I haven't many books.
66. much more…than, many more…than
much more…than后接形容词或不可数名词,many more…than后接可数名词 many more people, much more water, much more beautiful
67. no, not
no=not a/any no friend=not a/any friend no water=not any water
68. no more than, not more than
no more than相当于only,仅仅,只有,not more than 至多,不超过
69. majority, most
majority只能修饰可数名词,most可数不可数均可 the majority of people
70. by oneself, for oneself, to oneself, of oneself
by oneself单独的,独自的,for oneself为自己,to oneself供自己用的,of oneself 自行的,
自动的 The door opened of itself.
71. at all, after all
at all根本,全然, after all到底,毕竟 After all he is a child.
72. tall, high
tall常指人或动物,high常指物体 He is tall.
73. fast, quickly
fast侧重于指人或物体具有运动速度快的特点,quickly侧重指某事完成或发生的快 run fast, answer the question quickly
74. high, highly
high具体的高,highly抽象的高,高度的 think highly of
75. healthy, healthful
healthy健康的,健壮的,healthful有益于健康的 healthful exercise
76. sleeping, asleep, sleepy
a sleeping baby The baby is asleep. I'm sleepy.
77. gold, golden
gold指真金制品,golden指金色的,但金鱼用gold fish a gold ring
78. most, mostly
mostly大部分,是副词 most people, the people are mostly…
79. just, very
just表强调时是副词,作状语,very表强调时是形容词,用作定语 the very man, just the man
80. wide, broad
wide侧重于一边到另一边的距离,broad侧重于幅面的宽广broad shoulders
81. real, true
real真的,真实的,指的是事实上存在而不是想象的,true真的,真正的,指的是事实和实际情况相符合 real gold, a true story
82. respectful, respectable
respectful尊敬,有礼貌,respectable可敬的,值得尊敬的 be respectful to the aged
83. outwards, outward
二者均可用作副词,表示向外,外面,outward还可用作形容词 an outward voyage
84. pleasant, pleased, pleasing
pleasant常用作定语,pleased, pleasing常用作表语,pleased主语常为人,
pleasing主语常为物 a pleasant trip The trip is pleasing.
85. understanding, understandable
understanding明白事理的,能体谅的,understandable 可理解的,能够懂的
an understanding girl, an understandable mistake
86. close, closely
close接近,靠近,closely紧紧地,紧密地 closely connected, stand close
87. ill, sick
ill做表语,sick定,表均可 a sick boy
88. good, well
good形容词,well副词,但指身体状况是形容词 He is well again.
89. quiet, silent, still
quiet安静的,可以发出小的声音,silent不发出声音,但可以动,still完全不动,完全无声响 He stand there still. 他站在那儿,一动不动,也不说话。
90. hard, hardly
hard努力,hardly几乎不 work hard I can hardly believe it.
91. able, capable
able与不定式to do连用,capable与of连用 He is capable of doing…
92. almost, nearly
二者均为"几乎,差不多" 和否定词连用用almost almost nobody
93. late, lately
late迟,晚,lately最近,近来 I haven't seen him lately.
94. living, alive, live, lively
living, alive, live均为活着的,living定表均可,alive定表均可,定语后置,live只能做定语,lively意为活波的 all the living people=all the people alive
95. excited, exciting
excited使人兴奋的,exciting令人兴奋的 I'm excited. The news is exciting.
96. deep, deeply
deep具体的深,deeply抽象的深,深深地 deeply moved, dig deep
97. aloud, loud
aloud出声地,loud大声地 read aloud(出声地读)
98. worth, worthy
二者均为值得,worth后接doing,worthy后接to be done, of being done
It is worth visiting. = It's worthy to be visited. = It's worthy of being visited.
99. bad, badly
bad形容词,badly副词,不好,但与need, want, require连用为"很,非常" go bad
I need the book badly.
100. before long, long before
before long不久以后,long before很久以前 not long before = before long
101. quite, rather
quite完全地,相当于completely, rather修饰比较级 quite impossible
102. happy, glad
happy高兴,幸福,定表均可,glad高兴,只能做表语 a happy girl
103. instead, instead of
instead是副词,放在句首或句末,instead of是介词短语,放在句中
He didn't see a film. Instead he watched TV.  He watched TV instead of seeing a film.
104. too much, much too
too much 后接不可数名词,much too后接形容词 much too heavy
105. be about to, be going to, be to do
be about to表最近的将来,后面不接时间状语,be going to 侧重打算,想法,
be to do侧重意志,计划,安排I'm to meet him.(含双方事先约好的意思)
106. raise, rise
raise及物动词,rise不及物动词 The sun rises in the east.
107. bring, take, carry, fetch
bring拿来,take带走,carry随身携带,fetch去回这一往返动作 fetch a box of chalk
108. spend, take, pay, cost
spend人做主语,花钱,花时间; spend…on sth./in doing sth; take物做主语,花时间;
pay人做主语,花钱,pay for; cost物做主语,花钱
109. join, join in, take part in
join加入某个组织,并成为其中的一员;join in参加小型的活动, join sb. in;
take part in 参加大型的活动 He joined the army five years ago.
110. learn, study
study the problem
111. want, hope, wish
want打算,想要,want to do, want sb. to do, hope希望(通常可以实现),hope to do/ hope that… wish希望(通常不能实现)wish (sb.) to do, wish sb/sth. + n. I wish you success.
112. discover, invent, find out
find out发现,查明 At last he found out the truth.
113. answer, reply
answer及物动词,reply不及物动词,后接 to reply to the letter
114. leave, leave for
leave离开,leave for前往 He left Beijing for Shanghai.
115. rob, steal
rob抢劫 rob sb. of sth.,steal偷 steal sth. from sb.
116. shoot, shoot at
shoot射死,shoot at瞄准,但不一定射中 He shot the bird and it died.
117. drop, fall
drop及物不及物均可,fall不及物动词 Prices fell/dropped. He dropped his voice.
118. search, search for
search后接地点,search for后接东西 He searched his pocket for money.
119. used to, be used to
used to过去常常,be used to习惯于,后接sth./doing sth.;被用来,后接 do sth. He is used to getting up early.
120. win, lose, beat
win后接sth.,反义词为lose, beat后接sb. win the game, beat them
121. live on, live by
live on以…为主食,live by靠…谋生 live on fish/ live by fishing
122. beat, hit, strike
beat连续性地击打;hit打中,对准打;strike打一下或若干下 beat the wings
123. meet, meet with
meet遇到,meet with体验到,遭遇到 meet with an accident
124. lose, miss
lose失去(具体的物体),错过 sth. is lost, lose the chance;miss 想念,错过sth. is missing,
miss the chance
125. be tired of, be tired with/from
be tired of厌烦…,be tired with/from因为…而累了 be tired with/from running 800 meters
126. care about, care for
care about关心,计较,在乎,一般多用于否定句中;care for关心,照料,喜欢,愿意
He doesn't care about his clothes. I don't care for movies.
127. catch a cold, have a cold
catch a cold不能和表示"一段时间"的状语连用,而have a cold可以
She has had a cold for a week.
128. change for, change into
change for调换成,change into变成 Change the shirt for a bigger one. Water changes into ice.
129. continue, last
二者均为持续,continue主动,被动均可,last只能用主动 The war continued/lasted five years. The story is to be continued.
130. feed, raise
feed喂养,养活,饲养 (to give food to), raise饲养,养育 (cause to grow, bring up children)
raise the family
131. go for a doctor, go to a doctor
go for a doctor去请医生,go to a doctor去看病
132. notice, observe, catch sight of
notice注意到,observe观察,仔细地看,catch sight of突然看到 observe the stars
133. insist on, stick to
insist on坚持要求,后常接doing, stick to坚持, 后常接sth. stick to the plan
134. look, seem, appear
look指从外表上看,seem指内心的判断,appear指给人以表面的印象 appear wise,
look like his father
135. gather, collect
gather把分散的东西集中到一起, collect指精心地、有选择地进行收集 collect stamps
136. mean to do, mean doing
mean to do打算,想要做某事,mean doing意思是,意味着
By this I mean giving the students more practice.
137. die from, die of
die from表示死于(枪)伤,虚弱,过度劳累,饮食过度等,die of表示死于疾病,饥饿,
寒冷,年老,忧愁,失恋等精神因素 die of hunger and cold
138. pay for, pay back, pay off
pay for为…付钱,pay back还钱,但不一定还清,pay off还清 pay for the book, pay off the debt
139. divide, separate
divide the apple, separate the houses
140. arrive, get, reach
arrive不及物动词,后接in (大地点),at(小地点),get不及物动词后接to,reach及物动词
arrive in Beijing, get to Beijing, reach Beijing
141. grow, plant
plant the trees, trees are growing
142. manage, try
manage to do设法做成了某事,try to do尽力去做某事但不一定成功
He tried to pass the exam, but he failed.
143. choose, select
choose凭个人的判断力进行选择,select有目的地仔细认真地选择 choose the best answer
144. build, put up, set up, found
build一般用语,建成,put up临时搭建,set up建成(内部的设施基本齐全),
found国家或组织的建成 put up a tent, set up a school
145. be familiar to, be familiar with
be familiar to某物对某人来说是熟悉的,be familiar with某人熟悉某物
The book is familiar to me. I'm familiar with the book.
146. agree with, agree to, agree on
agree with同意某人,agree to同意某事,agree on在…上达成一致意见,主语是复数 agree with you, agree to the plan
147. throw to, throw at  throw to扔到…, throw at朝…扔 He throw a stone at me.
148. receive, accept
receive收到某一东西,但不一定接受,accept接受 I received a gift, but I didn't accept it.
149. wear, put on, dress
wear和dress表状态,wear接衣服等,可用进行时,dress接人,be dressed in, put on表动作
It's cold outside. Put on your warm clothes.
150. listen, hear  listen强调动作,hear强调结果 I listened, but I heard nothing.
151. look, see, watch
look看的动作,see看的结果,watch强调所看物体的变化、移动和发展watch TV
152. lie, lay  lie躺,位于(lay, lain),说谎(lied, lied),lay平放(laid, laid) lay the book
153. work as, act as
work as工作是…,act as充当某种职务或身份,或扮演某种角色 He works as a teacher.
He acts as an interpreter.
154. move, remove
move动一动,但不一定移走,remove从一处移到另一处 remove the table to the kitchen
155. hurt, injure, wound
hurt感情上受伤,injure事故中受伤,wound战争中受伤 He was wounded in the war.
156. turn, get, grow
turn yellow, get tired, grow big
157. close, shut, turn off
close和shut当关解时可以通用,用于可开合的物体,turn off用于指有开关的物体
Close/Shut the door. Turn off the TV.
158. set out, set about, set off
指出发,着手解时,set out 后接 to do,set about 后接doing, set off 后接 for sp.
159. begin, start
Class begins at 7:30a.m.
160. happen, take place
happen偶然性的没有预料到的事情的发生,take place必然性的发生
Great changes have taken place in my hometown.
161. at, in (表地点)  at小地点,in大地点 arrive at a small village, arrive in Shanghai
162. at work, in work  at work在工作,在上班,in work 有职业,有工作
Both my parents are at work. They are not at home.
163. increase to, increase by
increase to增长到…,increase by增长了… The number increased by 2,000 to 5,000.
164. at ease, with ease  at ease舒适地,安逸地;with ease容易地,无困难地 do it with ease
165. day after day, day by day
day after day日复一日(无变化);day by day一天天地(有变化)Trees grow taller day by day.
166. like, as  like相似关系,但并不等同,as同一关系,两者实为一体
Don't treat me as a child. (In fact, I'm a child.)
167. after, in (表时间)   after接时间点,in接时间段 after 7:00, in five minutes
168. between, among
between两者之间,三者或三者以上两两之间, among三者或三者以上之间
Switzerland lies between France, Germany, Australia and Italy.
169. after, behind (表位置)
after强调次序的先后,behind强调物体静态位置的前后 There are many trees behind the house.
170. since, for (完成时间状语)
since接点时间或一句话,for接一段时间 for three years, since 3:00
171. on the corner, in the corner, at the corner
on the corner物体表面的角上,in the corner物体内部的角落里,
at the corner物体外部的角落上(拐角处)on the corner of the table
172. warn sb. of, warn sb. against
warn sb. of提醒某人注意某事,warn sb. against提醒某人不要做某事
warn him against swimming in that part of the river
173. at peace, in peace  at peace平静地,in peace和平地 live in peace with one's neighbors
174. on earth, on the earth, in the earth
on earth在世上,在人间,到底,究竟,一点也不,on the earth在地上,在地球上,
in the earth在地下,在泥土里 no use on earth
175. in surprise, to one's surprise, by surprise
in surprise惊奇地,to one's surprise使某人吃惊的是,by surprise使…惊慌
The question took the professor by surprise.
176. in the air, on the air, in the sky
in the air正在酝酿中,on the air播送,广播,in the sky在天空中
His show is on the air at 6:00 tonight.
177. in the field, on the field
in the field在野外,on the field在战场上 He lost his life on the field.
178. in the market, on the market
in the market表示场所或地点,在市场上,on the market出售
He sells fish in the market. Fresh vegetables are on the market now.
179. in the sun, under the sun
in the sun在阳光下,under the sun地球上,全世界 people under the sun
180. in a voice, with one voice
in a voice出声地,with one voice异口同声地 They refused with one voice.
181. through, across  through穿越空间,across在…上穿过 through the forest, across the desert
182. on the way, in the way
on the way在前往…的路上,in the way挡路 The chair is in the way.
183. above, on, over  above在上面,不接触,on在上面,接触,over在正上方 fly over the hill
184. until, not…until
until到…为止, not…until直到…才(常跟点动词连用)I waited until 3:00.
He didn't come until 3:00.
185. besides, except, except for
except for整体…除了某一点以外 The composition is good except for a few spelling mistakes.
186. whether, if
当是否解时,只有在宾语从句中二者可以互换,其余都用whether,当如果解时用if I don't know if/whether he will come. If he comes, I'll let you know.
187. and, or
and并且,or或者,否则,常用于否定句中 I don't like apples or bananas.
Hurry up and you'll catch the bus. Hurry up or you'll miss the bus.
188. because, since, as, for
原因由强到弱为:because, since/as, for. 在句中的位置如下:1)…because… 2) Since/as…, …
3) …, for… Since I was ill, I didn't go.
189. when, as, while (表时间)
while从句动词为持续性动词 While I slept, a thief broke in.
190. the same…as, the same…that
the same…as和…一样的(相似但不同一), the same…that 同一物体
This is the same pen that I used yesterday. (同一支笔)
191. as well, as well as
as well也,常放于句末,和and连用表示既…又;as well as并列连词,不但…而且…
He is a professor, and a writer as well.
192. such…as, such…that
such…as像…样的,such…that如此…以至于 He is not such a fool as he looks like.
He is such a good student that all the teachers like him.
193. because, because of
because连词,连接两句话,because of介词短语,后接词或短语
He didn't go to school because of his illness.
194. in order that, in order to
表目的,in order that后接句子,in order to后接动词原形
I got up early in order to catch the first bus. I got up early so that I could catch the first bus.
195. for example, such as
for example一般只列举一个,such as列举多个例子
I have been to a lot of American cities, such as New York, Atlanta and Chicago.
196. used to, would
表过去常常,和现在相对应用used to,不提现在用would
I used to get up early, but now I don't.
197. All right. That's all right. That's right.
All right. That's all right. 当好吧解时,可以替换;当不客气,没关系解时只能用
That's all right. That's right. 那是对的 ---Sorry. --- That's all right.
198. such…that, so…that
但名词前面如果有many, much, little, few修饰用so…that,不用such that
so many people that… such a lovely boy=so lovely a boy
199. so + be (have, can, do)+主语, neither(nor) + be (have, can, do)+ 主语
也一样,肯定用so…否定用neither (nor) ---I can't play tennis. ---Nor can I.
200. Shall I…? Will you…?  Shall I…? 征求对方意见或向对方请示,意为我能…吗?
Will you…?请求或建议对方做某事,意为你愿意…吗?
Will you help me? Yes, I will.