Some pioneering work that began as an attempt to discover ways to increase production efficiency led to the founding of the human relations movement in industry and to the development of motivational skills and tools for managers. In 1927 researchers were involved in determining the optimum amount of lighting, temperature, and humidity (with lighting being considered the most important) for the assembly of electronic components at Western Electric. The researchers found that lighting had no consistent effect on production. In fact, production sometimes increased when lighting was reduced to the level of ordinary moonlight! The important part of this experiment began when two Harvard researchers, Elton Mayo and Fritz Roethlisberger, were brought in to investigate these unexpected results further. They found that workers were responding not to the level of lighting but to the fact that they were being observed by the experimenters.

        This phenomenon came to be known as the Hawthorne effect since the experiments were conducted at the Western Electric Hawthorne plant. This was the first documented and widely published evidence of the psychological effects on doing work, and it led to the first serious effort aimed at examining psychological and social factors in the workplace. Further experiments were continued for five years. Generally, the researchers concluded from their experiments that economic motivation (pay) was not the sole source of productivity and, in some cases, not even the most important source. Through interviews and test results, the researchers focused on the effects of work attitudes, supervision, and the peer group and other social forces, on productivity.

         Their findings laid the groundwork for modern motivation theory, and the study of human factors on the job, which continues to this day in such common practices as selection and training, establishing favorable work conditions, counseling, and personnel operations. The contributions of this experiment shifted the focus of human motivation from economics to a multifaceted approach including psychological and social forces.

 

  1. The most significant finding of the original research was

(a)    lighting had no consistent effect on production

(b)   production sometimes increased when lighting was reduced to the level of ordinary moonlight.

(c)   that lighting was no more important than the other factors of temperature and humidity.

(d)   the results were unexpected and confusing.

    答案是:A

 

  1. Why does the author say that the important part of this research began when two Harvard researchers were brought in (lines 8-9)

(a)    Until then the research had been poorly conducted

(b)   They took a multifaceted approach

(c)   The results of the original research did not make sense

(d)   Harvard has a good reputation in conducting research

    答案是:B

 

  1. The research became known as the “Hawthorne effect” because

(a)    it was the name of the plant where the study was conducted

(b)   It was the name suggested by the Harvard researchers

(c)   It was the name of the principal experimenter

(d)   There were hawthorne plants growing at Western Electric where the study was conducted

    答案是:A

 

  1. Part of the reason for the change in focus from economics to a more multifaceted approach to the psychological effects on doing work was

(a)    due to the recognition that workers should be happy at work in order to maintain high productivity

(b)   a general conclusion that pay was sometimes not the most important factor

(c)   because the Hawthorne study continued for so long

(d)   because the workers requested it

    答案是:B

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT true about the Hawthorne study

(a)    It was the first documented evidence of the psychological effects on doing work

(b)   The Hawthorne study continued for five years

(c)   They found that workers responded not to the level of lighting but to the fact that other work conditions were not favorable

(d)   The study changed the focus from economics to a multifaceted approach

    答案是:C

  TOEFL高频词——www.teacherzhaoli.com有下载

  pioneer       n. 先驱, 倡导者, 先遣兵, 先锋

  efficiency             n. 效率, 功效                                  (次数:5                         

  humidity            n. 湿气, 潮湿, 湿度<>沼泽中的肥沃高地  (次数:3

  component    n. 成分            (次数:6

  consistent     adj. 一致的, 调和的, 坚固的, [数、统]相容的      (次数:3

  conduct      n. 行为, 操行            (次数:8

  psychological  adj. 心理()            (次数:2

  psychologist   n. 心理学者            (次数:11

  psychology    n. 心理学, 心理状态            (次数:4

  factor        n. 因素, 要素, 因数, 代理人            (次数:32

  motivation     n. 动机                                        (次数:2

  shift   n. 移动, 轮班, 移位, 变化, 办法, vt. 替换, 转移, 改变, 推卸, 变速   (次数:10)