2005年英语高考大纲增加了“阅读填空题”,这是自英语高考出现听力新题型以来,又一次出现新的题型。

    从质量上来说,2005年的“阅读填空”新题型远远超过当年的听力新题型,因为阅读填空本质上属于信息收集整理这一语言运用形态,而高考现行的听力则只是属于语言技能这一形式,而更为关键的则是要看听的活动本身是否属于语言运用。

    可以说,2005年的新题型是方向性的,是英语高考适应课程改革需要发展的号角。

    那么,这一新题型究竟是什么样的呢?

    以下就是“庐山真面目”:

Man:… and lastly this week I have some information about a course at the Country College near Burnside, which might be of interest to someone wanting a late-season break, or to groups. They tell me they have spaces on their Country Sports courses the weekend after next. There are three courses that you might like to join: fishing, hill-walking and rock-climbing. So, quite a lot of variety there. There fishing is open to anyone over the age of 12, and so is the hill-walking. For the rock-climbing you must be sixteen or older, for safety reasons. All these courses are really enjoyable.

BURNSIDE COUNTRY COLLEGE
Country Sports Weekends

COURSEAGE
Fishing12+
1. _______________2.______________
Rock-climbing16+

    答案与解题指导

    答案:1. Hill-walking        2. 12+

    1.表格左边写着COURSES(课程),并已经填入两门课程的名称,显然是要求我们在左边表格中填入课程名称。作者在材料第三句There are three courses that you might like to join: fishing, hill-walking and rock-climbing.说到是三种体育课程,分别是fishing, hill-walking and rock-climbing。那么在表格中已经分别列出了fishing,rock-climbing,然后空格1应该填上hill-walking。这样才能形成完成的信息表。

    2.表格右边是AGE(年龄),并已经填入两个课程的年龄,这两个年龄是什么意思呢?我们看原文:There fishing is open to anyone over the age of 12. For the rock-climbing you must be sixteen or older, for safety reasons.这显然是表示年龄限制。那么我们已经在空格1填入了Hill-walking,那么我们必须在空格2填入对Hill-walking的年龄限制。不过,这一限制材料中并没有直接给出,而是在There fishing is open to anyone over the age of 12这句对fishing的年龄限制之后,用so这个代词表达so is the hill-walking.我们知道so表达的“与前述相同”的意思。显然,我们理解全句There fishing is open to anyone over the age of 12, and so is the hill-walking.的含义应该是There fishing is open to anyone over the age of 12, and the hill-walking is also open to anyone over the age of 12.那么我们就可以知道,对于Hill-walking的年龄限制也应该是over the age of 12。这个时候我们还不能直接在空格2填入12,因为试题给的案例说明我们表示over的时候要用一个+符号。要知道,若不用+符号,直接填入12,意思是错误的,因为原文中不包括12岁的孩子,而要求是12岁以上,尽管按照西方的习惯,12岁零1个月也是12岁以上,但为了准确地表述信息,我们必须按照试题所给案例,在空格2填入12+,这才是正确答案。

    这一题型貌似简单,似乎只是阅读理解然后填空就可以了。

    其实,远非如此。

    首先,这一新题型属于主观试题。这说明英语高考在增加主观试题,减少客观试题。而这是全球语言测试的大方向。

    第二,这一新题型属于信息收集整理(information gathering),并不是语言层面的考查,而是语言运用层面的考查。

    第三,这一新题型并非简单的阅读理解,而只是要求获得与信息有关的信息。

    第四,样题显示,新题型不仅考查直接信息的理解与获得,更考查对间接信息的获得。样题中的so is …的so所表达的就是间接信息,而不是前面的over the age of 12。

    第五,样题显示,新题型不仅要求获得信息,还要求科学地表述信息,12+中+的使用就是要求科学地表述信息。

    第六,新题型同时打破了原有的分值比例,如何调整新的分值,这本身就是一个非常复杂的事情,而且涉及到减少什么题型的分值的问题,而也代表一种方向。

    所以,我们可以说,“阅读填空”新题型是考查学生阅读信息材料、收集整理直接与间接信息、科学表述信息的能力。

    那么,基于以上分析,我们应该如何备考新题型呢?

    高考考生经过多年的英语学习,已经具备了一般的阅读理解能力,所以获得直接信息的能力往往已经具备,但是根据以前的考纲复习的话,通常没有专门复习获得间接信息的能力,而且肯定没有复习科学表述信息的能力。

    那么,如何备考新题型呢?

    首先,我们必须有科学的指导,指导我们如何理解新题型,如何科学地训练。

    其次,我们必须形成获得间接信息的能力,这就必须在专家帮助下,发现间接信息有哪些表达形式,然后有针对性地学习。

    再次,我们要学会科学表述信息。

    最后,我们需要新的分值比例带来的考试时间与精力的均衡分布。

    以下是我们奉献给大家的新题型模拟题。

模拟试题 1

    A laboratory, different from any others, at the University of Chicago is busy only at night. It is a dream laboratory where researchers are at work studying dreamers. While the students sleep, special machines record their brain waves and eye movements that shows the beginning of the dream as well as the body movements that shows the end of a dream. Observers report that a person usually keeps moving before a dream. Once the dream has started, his mouth doesn’t move, neither does his body. But his eyes become more active, as if the certain had gone up on a show. When the dream lasts, many people murmur and even speak without any body movements. But the scientists can’t make the final scientific conclusion until now.

Notes about dream

StageAction
The dream starts 1. _____________ 2. ____________ 3. ____________
The dream lastsBody movement (╳) Mouth movement (√)
The dream endsBody movement (√)

    Keys : 1. Mouth movement (╳)  2. Body movement (╳)  3. Eyes movement (√)

模拟试题2

Information for English Learning

    Global English Centre

*6--month General English classes in all four skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing within 1200 yuan
*Choice of morning or evening classes, 3 hours per day, Mon. to Fri.
*Experienced college English teachers.
*Close to city centre and bus stops.
Tel:67605272 Add:105 Zhongshan Road,100082?

    Modern Language School

*Special courses in English for business, travel, banking, hotel management and office skills.?
*Small classes (5-10 students) on Sat. & Sun. from 2:00-5:00 p.m.?
*Native English teachers from Canada and USA.
*Language lab and computers supplied.
*6--month course: 1800 yuan (excluding text books fee)
Write or phone: Modern Language School, 675 Park Road, 100056
Tel:67353019

    The 21st Century English Training Centre

*We specialise in effective teaching at all levels. We specialize at TOEFL preparation class.?
*We offer morning or afternoon classes, both of which last three months and a half at a cost of 800 yuan.
*Entrance exams: June 1 and Dec.1.?
*Only 15--minute walk from city centre. 1, Dongfang Street
Call 67801642 for more information.

Information about English courses

SchoolSubjectsTimeCostLocationTelephone number
Global English CenterListening, speaking, reading, writing6 months2105 Zhongshan Road67605272
Modern Language SchoolEnglish for business, travel, banking, hotel management, office skills34675 Park Road67353019
21st Century English Training CenterClasses at every level + TOEFL preparation class561,  Dongfang Street67801642

    Keys:  1. ≥1200 yuan  2. 6 months  3. < 1800 yuan   4. 3 months  5. 800 yuan