Qingdao Declaration of the Council of Heads of State of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
The leaders of the Member States of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (hereinafter referred to as the SCO or the Organisation), following the meeting of the Council of Heads of State in Qingdao on 10 June 2018, hereby declare the following.
The dynamically developing world is currently going through a period of major changes and reconfiguration; the geopolitical landscape is becoming diversified and multipolar, and tiesbetween countries are becoming closer.
At the same time, the factors of instability and uncertainty are increasing, the situation in the world economy remains unstable despite the positive changes, economic globalisation is confronted with the expansion of unilateral protectionist policies and other challenges in international trade, and the risks associated with the aggravation of conflicts in a number of regions, terrorism, drug trafficking and organised crime, epidemics of infectious diseases and climate change are also on the rise. Counteraction to these global challenges requires urgent development of collective and effective approaches of the world community.
Following the Shanghai Spirit, which embodies mutual trust, equality, mutual benefit, equal rights, mutual consultations, respect for the diversity of cultures, and aspiration for joint development, amid fundamental changes in global affairs, the SCO consistently enhances political, security, economic, cultural and humanitarian cooperation and acts as one of the most influential participants in the modern system of international relations.
Relying on neighbouurly relations, friendship and cooperation, mutual respect for the cultural and civilisational diversity and social values of its Member States, on trustful dialogue and constructive partnership, the SCO sets an example of close and fruitful cooperation in building a more equitable and balanced world order based on an equal, cooperative, indivisible,
comprehensive and sustainable security, ensuring the interests of each and every state in accordance with the norms and principles of international law.
The Member States reaffirm their commitment to the goals and objectives stipulated in the SCO Charter and the SCO Development Strategy Towards 2025 by consistently developing the political, security, trade and economic, financial, investment, transport, energy, agricultural and humanitarian cooperation, promoting the construction of international relations of a new type based on mutual respect, justice, equality, mutually beneficial cooperation, and the formation of a common vision of building a community for the shared future of humankind.
The Member States will continue to deepen multifaceted cooperation for peace, stability, development and prosperity in the SCO space. In this regard, they, supporting the efforts of the countries of the Central Asian region to intensify cooperation in the political, economic, cultural, humanitarian and other spheres, welcome the results of the first consultative meeting of the heads of state of Central Asia (Astana, 15 March 15 2018).
The Member States note the new quality and dynamics that have emerged in various fields of cooperation since the Republic of India and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan’s accession to the SCO. They intend, based on strict observance of international treaties and SCO documents, to jointly promote the further expansion of the Organisation's potential in all areas of its
The Member States reaffirm their readiness to increase cooperation with observer states and partners in the SCO dialogue on a mutually beneficial and equitable basis, to enhance the contacts and interaction of the SCO with the UN and its specialised bodies, and with other international and regional organisations.
The Member States are committed to strict compliance with the goals and principles of the UN Charter, primarily the equality and sovereignty of states, non-interference in their internal affairs, mutual respect of territorial integrity, the inviolability of borders, non-aggression, a peaceful settlement of disputes, the non-use of force or threat of force, and other universally recognised norms of international law aimed at the maintenance of peace and security, the development of
cooperation among states, the strengthening of independence, the right of nations to determine their future and to choose their political, socioeconomic and cultural path.
The Member States reaffirm their resolve to strictly comply with the provisions of the Treaty on Good-Neighbourly Relations, Friendship and Cooperation between the Member States of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (Bishkek, 16 August 2007) aimed at the further development of neighbourly and friendly relations in areas of mutual interest, including to turn mutual borders into borders of lasting peace and friendship.
The Member States reaffirm their resolve to support the efforts of the UN as a universal multilateral organisation to maintain international peace and security, stimulate global development, and promote and protect human rights. They are committed to strengthening the key role of the UN Security Council as the main body responsible under the UN Charter for maintaining international peace and security.
The Member States have taken note of the intention of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan and the Republic of Tajikistan to seek the position of non-permanent members of the UN Security Council.
The Member States will continue to work together in the area of disarmament and arms control, peaceful use of nuclear energy, and political and diplomatic settlement of challenges to nonproliferation regimes.
The Member States that are signatory to the Non-Proliferation Treaty are committed to strict compliance with NPT provisions, a comprehensive and balanced encouragement of NPT goals and principles, the promotion of the global non-proliferation regime and nuclear disarmament with due regard for the entirety of international stability factors, as well as stimulating equal and mutually beneficial cooperation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
The Member States believe that an early enforcement of the Protocol on Security Assurances to the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia by all signatory states will be a major contribution to regional security and the global non-proliferation regime.
The Member States reaffirm that unilateral unrestricted build-up of missile defence systems by individual countries or groups of countries will damage international security and destabilise the global situation. They consider it unacceptable to strengthen one’s security to the detriment of other’s security.
The Member States point out the importance of keeping space free of weapons and support the practical measures to prevent an arms race in space. They welcome the resolution of the UN General Assembly Disarmament and International Security Committee on further practical measures for the prevention of an arms race in outer space and the creation of a group of governmental experts to prepare and submit proposals for an international legally binding instrument on the prevention of an arms race in outer space, which would prohibit the placement of weapons in outer space.
The Member States support the efforts and initiatives designed to stimulate strict compliance with the Chemical Weapons Convention, enhance the prestige of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons and strengthen the regime stipulated in the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction.
The Member States strongly condemn all forms of terrorism and consider it necessary to make efforts to promote the creation of a unified global counterterrorism front with the central coordinating role of the UN on the basis of international law, without politicisation or double standards. They confirm the key role of the state and its competent agencies in counteracting terrorism, separatism and extremism on its territory, as well as in relevant cooperation within the SCO and in international formats.
The Member States stand for reaching consensus on the issue of adopting the UN Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism based on the UN Charter and other documents. They emphasise the importance of comprehensive measures to reach a peaceful settlement of international and regional conflicts, enhance efforts against terrorism and its ideology, the detection and elimination of factors and conditions that facilitate terrorism and extremism, acknowledging that there can be no justification of any act of terrorism or extremism. They praise the initiative of the Republic of Kazakhstan to launch the Code of Conduct in International Anti-Terrorist Operations in the UN format.
The Member States note that the interference in the domestic affairs of other states under the pretence of combatting terrorism and extremism is unacceptable, as well as the use of terrorist, extremist and radical groups for one’s own purposes.
The Member States call for effectively fulfilling the requirements of specialised UN Security Council resolutions as regards efforts to counter any forms of financing terrorism and providing material and technical support to it; the measures include finding individuals and legal entities involved in economic relations with terrorists.
In relation to the developments in the Middle East, the Member States note the growing threat from foreign terrorists who return to their countries or find shelter in third countries to continue their terrorist and extremist activity within the SCO. The Member States will work to improve the information exchange mechanisms regarding these people and their movements, and speed up procedures to extradite foreign terrorists in accordance with the national legislation of the SCO Member States and boost international cooperation both on the political level and between the security services.
The Member States praise the initiative of the Republic of Uzbekistan on the adoption of a special General Assembly resolution Education and Religious Tolerance, which it proposed at the 72nd Session of the UN General Assembly in September 2017 in New York.
The Member States confirm the special role of the SCO Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure in the joint fight against “the three evils” – terrorism, extremism and separatism – in order to ensure regional security, and will boost the potential of cooperation between competent agencies in this area. Considering the growing scale and mutual interconnectedness of threats to security, they noted the importance of the further improvement of the RATS SCO, including considering the organisation of a monitoring system of possible threats in the global information space, and counteracting them.
The implementation of the cooperation programme to fight terrorism, separatism and extremism for 2019−2021 will be prioritised. It is considered important to speed up the coming into effect of the SCO Convention on Countering Extremism, signed on 9 June 2017 in Astana.
The Member States praise the results of the international conference on countering terrorism and extremism (Dushanbe, 3−4 May 2018), which became an important venue for multilateral cooperation in these areas.
The Member States will continue to conduct regular joint anti-terrorist exercises, including the Peace Mission antiterrorism military exercise. They will continue to expand their cooperation in defence and security, on security issues for major events, and the training of personnel to enhance the capabilities of their respective armed forces and competent services.
The Member States reaffirm their concern about the risk of weapons of mass destruction ending up at the disposal of terrorist groups; they advocate the strengthening of the international legal framework to counter this threat and support the initiative to draft an international convention against chemical and biological terrorist attacks at the Conference on Disarmament.
The Member States will strengthen their cooperation in combating the spread and propagation of terrorist ideology through the internet, including publicly justifying terrorism, recruiting members to terrorist groups, inciting and financing terrorist attacks, and online tutorials on methods of committing terrorist acts. They very much appreciate the Xiamen-2017 anti-cyber terrorism exercise held in China in 2017, aimed at curbing the use of the internet for terrorist, separatist and extremist purposes.
The Member States have noted the importance of combining the efforts of the international community in countering attempts to involve young people in the activities of terrorist, separatist and extremist groups. In this regard, they have adopted the Joint Appeal to Youth, in which they put forth the intention to organise comprehensive educational work as well as the spiritual and moral education of the younger generation in the SCO.
The Member States express concern about the growing threat from increased production, trade and abuse of drugs, and the use of proceeds from drug trafficking as a source of financing terrorism. They emphasise the need to develop a joint and balanced approach to countering illegal trafficking in drugs and their precursors, including through the internet.
In this regard, the Member States welcome the adoption of the SCO Anti-Drug Strategy for 2018-2023 and the Programme of Action for its implementation, as well as the Concept for the Prevention of the Abuse of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances at the summit.
The Member States reaffirm their commitment to the existing international system to combat illegal drug trafficking on the basis of the norms and principles of international law, the relevant UN conventions and SCO documents. In this context, they gave a positive assessment of the joint SCO and UN Office on Drugs and Crime event, the UN and the SCO in the Fight Against Narcotic Drugs: New Threats and Joint Actions, on 12 March 2018 in Vienna.
The Member States have reaffirmed their readiness to continue improving the mechanism of cooperation within the SCO to combat illegal drug trafficking at the level of the heads of the competent authorities, senior officials and expert working groups, to conduct joint operations on a regular basis to curb illegal trafficking of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances and their precursors, to take effective measures to prevent the spread of synthetic drugs, and new psychoactive substances. They approved the outcome of the Meeting of the Heads of the SCO Counter-Narcotics Agencies (Tianjin, 17 May 2018).
The Member States intend to continue exchanging information on individuals involved in terrorist activities and joint investigation of terrorist crimes of a transnational nature through effective border control under the Agreement on Cooperation and Interaction of the Member States of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation on Border Issues (Ufa, 10 July 2015) to prevent the activity and cross-border movement of foreign terrorists and terrorist groups.
The Member States call on the international community to put more effort into creating a peaceful, secure, open and structured information space based on cooperation. They emphasise the central role of the UN in developing universal international rules and principles as well as norms for countries’ responsible behaviour in the information space and advocate the establishment of a working mechanism within the framework of the UN based on a just geographical distribution in order to develop standards, rules or principles for countries’ responsible behaviour in the information space and to formalise them by adopting the corresponding UN General Assembly resolution.
The Member States are convinced that all states should participate equally in internet development and governance. A governing organisation established to manage key internet resources must be international, more representative and democratic.
The Member States will continue to promote practical cooperation in countering threats and challenges in the information space based on the Agreement among the Governments of the SCO Member States on Cooperation in the Field of Ensuring International Information Security (Yekaterinburg, 16 June 2009), such as international cooperation in IT abuse, including for terrorist and criminal purposes, and call for developing an international legal document on countering IT use for criminal purposes under the auspices of the UN.
The Member States note that corruption, as a threat to national and regional security, in all its forms and manifestations leads to less effective public administration, adversely affects investment appeal and hampers socioeconomic progress. They express their intention to develop comprehensive international cooperation in anti-corruption activities, including through the sharing of experience and information.
The Member States affirm their intention to develop practical cooperation in the legal and judicial areas by developing and approving approaches to exchanging expertise, methods to carry out forensic investigations and improving the skills of forensic experts. They advocate the establishment of a contractual legal framework on legal assistance to individuals and legal entities in civil cases, including trade and criminal cases in the framework of the SCO by adopting a corresponding SCO convention that will also envisage the participation of observer states if they comply with all the obligations under the convention.
The Member States consider it important to give impetus to contact and cooperation between legislative agencies and political parties, as well as to exchange expertise in the area of state governance and development.
The Member States praised the SCO missions to observe presidential and parliamentary elections and referendums.