TUse "desirable difficulty"


  Reviewing material is one of the most popular forms of learning. Guess what? It's also one of the least effective. Researchers call this "the fluency illusion." Just because it's easy to remember right now doesn't mean it will stay that way. "Desirable difficulty" means that the harder you work trying to retrieve something from memory, the better you learn. Don't merely reread stuff. Practice like a medical student and quiz yourself with flashcards. You're not going to learn much passively. Research show re-reading material four times was not nearly as effective as reading it once and writing a summary.


  You need to struggle. Whether it's memorizing information or practicing a sport or skill, you want your practice to be challenging. When I spoke to Dan Coyle, bestselling author of The Talent Code, he said: We learn when we're in our discomfort zone. When you're struggling, that's when you're getting smarter. The more time you spend there, the faster you learn. It's better to spend a very, very high quality ten minutes, or even 10 seconds, than it is to spend a mediocre hour.

  你得受点挫折,不管是在记忆方面或是锻炼某项运动或其他技能。要尽量做些有挑战性的任务。就像《一万个小时天才》的作者Dan Colye所说,在我们舒适区以外,我们最能学到东西。就是俗话说的“吃一堑,长一智”,花越多的时间钻研,你就会学习得越快。聚精会神的十分钟,哪怕是10秒钟,比一个小时的磨洋工要有效率的多。

  The Get fast, negative feedback


  One of the three key components to "10,000 hours of deliberate practice" is feedback. Without it you don't know if you're improving or what you need to work on next. And don't just listen to me because I read the nerdy research. The most un-nerdy people in the world are on the same page. When I spoke to Navy SEAL platoon commander James Waters, he said feedback is critical.

  关于“一万小时刻意训练”三个要素的其中之一就是反馈。如果没有反馈那么你就不知道自己哪里需要提高,下一步的训练计划要怎么制定。也不必只听我的一家之言,事实上,那些取得成绩的人都知道反馈的重要性。比如海军海豹突击队指挥官James Water 就认同反馈的重要性。

  After every mission, SEALs do a review of what happened to get feedback. Do they all just congratulate each other? No, they spend 90 percent of their time on the negative: what they can do better next time. And there's another vital source of feedback: yourself. Always take some time to reflect on how you're doing.