Find a mentor
Luke had Yoda. The Karate Kid had Mr. Miyagi. I'm sure Kung Fu Panda had somebody but I never saw that movie. You get the picture. When I spoke to Anders Ericsson, the professor who did the research behind the "10,000 hour rule" he said mentors were vital. But you knew that already. So what does the research show about mentors that most people get wrong? Merely finding someone to help you that is already an expert doesn't cut it.
就像星际大战中的卢克有绝地大师，龙威小子有宫城先生，功夫熊猫也有个师傅，虽然我没有看过电影。但是我想你明白了有个导师重要性。曾为“一万个小时理论”作调研的Aders Ericsson, 说有个导师对于成功是非常重要的。你们很多人都知道，也有导师,为什么最后的结果还是不理想，因为很多人都没有选对人。
When I spoke to Shane Snow, author of Smartcuts, he said your mentor needs to care about you. Here's Shane: In great mentorship relationships the mentor doesn't just care about the thing that you're learning, they care about how your life goes. They are with you for the long haul. They are willing to say, "No," and to tell you what you're doing is wrong. Those kinds of relationships yield outsized results in terms of future salaries and happiness.
Start with what's important
David Epstein put it simply: "The hallmark of expertise is figuring out what information is important." There are many components to any skill but practicing them all doesn't produce the same results. When I spoke to Tim Ferriss, bestselling author of The 4-Hour Workweek he said: Do an 80-20 analysis and ask yourself, "Which 20 percent of these things I need to learn will get me 80 percent of the results that I want?"
评判一个专家的标准就是对于重要信息判断的准确性。技能的训练有不同的方法，但达到的效果未必相同。畅销书《The 4-Hour Workweek》的作者Tim认为：二八原则可以帮助你分析，要学习哪20% 来达到80%的效果?
When Tim was learning chess from champion Josh Waitzkin (whose life was the basis for the film Searching for Bobby Fischer) they did things the opposite from how most chess instruction works. They didn't start with the beginning of a chess game. They jumped straight to key moves that are applicable to the majority of interactions on the board. This allowed Tim to hang with top players after only a few days of practice.
他师从Josh Waitzkin(基本是电影“王者之旅”的现实版)学习国际象棋，不同于先打基本功，而是在棋谱上学习足以招架大部分进攻的招式。短短几天Tim 就可以和高手对弈了。
The #4 "Train like you fight"
When I spoke to Special Forces Lieutenant Colonel Mike Kenny he told me, "Train like you fight." You want your practice to be as similar to the real thing as possible. And research backs Mike up. Not only will you be better prepared, but you learn much better when the context you practice in matches the context you will eventually perform in. How strong is this effect? Insanely strong.
当我和特种部队上尉Mike Kenny 取经时，他说秘诀是“把每一次训练都当成实战”。研究结果支持他的说法，你需要的不仅仅是充分的准备，只有自己带入真实的情境来训练才能最终取得成绩。那要多真实?越真实越好。