9. What is the long health viewabout the mother sleeping with new-born babies?

10 .What do Israeli researchers’ findings show?

11.What does the American Academy’s PD recommendmothers do?



The US has already lost more than a third of thenative languages that existed before European colonization and the remaining192 are classed by the UNESCO as ranging between unsafe and extinct."We need more funding and more effortto return these languages to everyday use," says Fred Nowosky of theNational museum of the American Indians, "we are makingprogress, but money needs to be spent on revitalizing languages, not justdocumenting them." Some reported languages mainly in California andOklahoma where thousands of Indians were forced to relocate in the 19th centuryhave fewer than 10 native speakers. Part of the issue is that tribal groupsthemselves don't always believe their languages are endangered until they aredown to the last handful of speakers. "But progress is being made throughemerging schools, because if you teach children when they are young, it willstay with them as adults and that is the future." says Fred Nowosky. Suchschools have become a model in Hawaii, but the islanders' native language arestill classed by the UNESCO as critically endangered because only 1000 peoplespeak it. The decline in the American African languages has historical roots. In the mid 19th century, the US government adopted a policyof Americanizing Indian children by removing them from their homes andcultures. Within a few generations, most have forgotten their native tongues.Another challenge to language survival is television. Ithas brought English into homes, and pushed out traditional storytelling andfamily time together, accelerating the extinction of native languages.

Questions 12-15 are based on the passage you just heard.

12. What can we learn from the report?

13. For what purpose does Fred Nowosky appeal from thefunding?

14. What is the historical cause of the decline of theAmerican Indian Languages?

15. What does the speaker say about television?

Section C

Lecture one

Gragroszen lost her job as a sales managernearly three years ago.and it is still unemployed.it is literally likesomething a dream to remember what it is like to actually be able to go out andit Puts the days to work and receive a day pay

At first Rosen made house paymentswith the help unemployment insurance.it pays late of workers to have theirprevious wages law they look for work. But now theinsurance has run out for him and it has to make tough choices. He comes backon medications and he no longer support his disabled mother. It is devastatingexperiences. New researchers says the US recession that is now over. But manypeople remain unemployed and unemployed workers face difficult odds. There isliterally only one job opening for every five unemployed workers. So Four outof five workers have no chance of finding job. Business have down-sized orshutdown across America, leading fewer job opportunities  for those in search of work. Experts whomonitor unemployed statistic in box Pennsylvania say about twenty-eightthousand people are unemployed and many of them are jobless do to no force oftheir own.

Local directer Elizabeth says theyprovide trading guidance to help find local job opportunity. Sohere is job opening . Here is job seeker. But the lack of work opportunities limit how much she can help. Rosensays he hopes congress will take action. This month, he launched the nineteenunions and organizations of eighteen internet based grass root gross groups

Their goal is to convince law makers to extendunemployed benefits. But Pennsylvania says government simply do not have enoughmoney to extend unemployment insurance.he thinks thebest way to help long-term unemployed is to allow local company that can createmore jobs . But the boost investigator for the plan to work will taketime Time that Rosen says requires   foodand payments . Rosen says who uses the last stating to try to hang on to heworked for more than twenty years to buy. But one study is gone . He doesn’tknow what hell do


16 how does the unemployment insurance helpthe unemployed?

17. Whatis the local director Elizabeth of the box county careering doing?

18. Whatdoes Pennsylvania state representative say is the best way to help long-termunemployed?

Lecture 2:

W:19.Earlier thisyear, British explorers Pen Huddle and his team tried three months to cross thefrozen Arctic ocean taking measurements and recording observations about theice.

M:While we have been believed that we would bein account of a good proportion of this older, thicker, technically multi-yearice that has been around for a few years and just get thicker and thicker. weactually find there wasn’t any multi-year ice at all. 

W: Some observations and summering serviceover the past several years has shown less ice in the polar region. 20.But the recent measurements show the lost is morepronounced than the previous thought.

M:We are looking at roughly 80 percent loss ofice cover on the Arctic ocean in ten years, roughly ten years and 100 percentloss in nearly twenty years. Cambridge Scientist Peter Whitens who is measuringthe findings that in the summer season . 21.Butresearch management shows the lost of than previous thought. We are  roughly looking at the percent ice cover forten years. roughly ten years about 100 percent invisible. The more youlose, the more you created during the summit The less forms in winter, thefollowing in summer. It comes down brain successes until it has gone.environmental treaty worldwide like fun. The artists say ice in the symptom.fast than expected. Actually, it has to translate into more urgency to dealwith climate changing problems and reduce emissions. Greenhouse emissions blamefor global warming needs to come out the by the change summit in December. wehave basically achieved there, to communicate the deal. that’s the minimum.

M:We has to do that incredibly. And that wehave to find the equipment .What the needs urgency The carbon we produce intothe atmosphere keeps the warming fire for 1000 years. 22.Sowe have to come back the rapidly now. Because it takes a long time to work itthrough into our response by the atmosphere. We cannot switch off globalwarming. We have to stop being good in the near future. We had to now. There isnot easy technological What is more easy to climate change. He and otherscientists said there are the two optional to replace the fasten fuels.Generally, energy with the global warming in nuclear power.

Q19: What did Pen Huddle and his team do inthe Arctic Ocean?

Q20: What does the report say about the Arcticregion?

Q21: What does Cambridge scientist PeterWhitens say in his study?

Q22: How these Peter Whitens view commonchange?

Lecture 3

Froma very early age, some children exhibit better self-control than others. Now, a new study began with 1,000 children in New Zealandtracked how low self-control can predict poor health, money troubles and even acriminal record in their adult years. Researchers has been studying thegroup of children for decades now. Some of the early observations have to dowith the level of self-control the youngsters displayed parents, teachers, eventhe kids themselves, scored the youngsters on measures like "acting beforethinking" and "persistence in reaching goals." The children ofthe study are now adults in their thirties. Terrie Moffitt of Duke Universityand her research colleague found that kids with self-control issues tended togrow up to become adults with a far more troubling set of issues to deal with."The children who had the lowest self-control when they were age three to10, later on had the most health problems in their thirties," Moffittsaid, "and they had the worst financial situation. They were more likelyto have a criminal record and to be raising a child as a single parent on avery low income.""Even the children who had above-averageself-control as pre-schoolers, could have benefited from more self-controltraining. They could have improved their financial situation and their physicaland mental health situation 30 years later."So,children with minor self-control problems were likely as adults to have minorhealth problems, and so on.Moffitt said it's still unclear why somechildren have better self-control than others, though other researchers havefound that it's mostly a learned behavior, with relatively little geneticinfluence. But good self-control can run in families because children with goodself-control are more likely to grow up to be healthy and prosperous parents."Whereas some of the low-self-control study members are more likely to besingle parents with a very low income and the parent is in poor health andlikely to be a heavy substance abuser," said Moffitt. "So that's nota good atmosphere for a child. So it looks as though self-control is somethingthat in one generation can disadvantage the next generation."But the good news, according to Moffitt, is that self-controlcan be taught by parents, and through school curricula that have been shown tobe effective. But the good news is the Moffitt says that self-controlcan be taught by the parents and through school curricula that have proved tobe effective. Terry Moffitt’s paper on the link on self-control and adultstatus is later is published proceeding the academy of sciences.

23. What is the new study about?

24. What does the study seem to show?

25. What does Moffitt say is the good news tothe study?