爱思英语编者按:阿道夫·希特勒,奥地利裔德国人,政治家、军事家,德意志第三帝国元首、总理,纳粹党党魁,第二次世界大战的发动者。希特勒积极宣扬法西斯主义、极端民族主义、反共产主义、反资本主义、反犹主义,改组并建立国家社会主义工人党(即纳粹党)。试图在欧陆建立以纳粹德国为首的新秩序,力主扩大日耳曼人的生存空间并重新武装德国。成为德意志第三帝国元首后,积极扩军备战,并于1939年指挥德军入侵波兰,直接导致第二次世界大战的爆发。期间犯下种种罪行,并迫害和屠杀六百万的犹太人。1945年4月30日在德国总理府地下室自杀。
 
Hitler
希特勒

What the Führer means for Germans today
元首对今天的德国意味着什么

Seventy years after Adolf Hitler's death, how Germans see him is changing
在希特勒死亡70年后,德国人看待他的方式正在发生变化
 
Dec 19th 2015 | Berlin | From the print edition
 
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IN GERMANY, as in the rest of Europe, copyright expires seven decades after the author's year of death. That applies even when the author is Adolf Hitler and the work is “Mein Kampf”. Since 1945, the state of Bavaria has owned the book's German-language rights and has refused to allow its republication. German libraries stock old copies, and they can be bought and sold. But from January 1st no permission will be needed to reprint it.
 
在德国,如同在欧洲其他国家一样,版权会在作者死亡70年后失效。这甚至在作者是阿道夫·希特勒、作品为《我的奋斗》时也适用。巴伐利亚州从1945年以后就拥有该书的德语版权,并且一直拒绝允许它的再此发行。德国各地的图书馆藏有许多老的版本,并且这些书还能够买卖。但是,自2016年1月1日起,重新印刷这本书将不需要任何许可了。
 
Those living outside Germany may not immediately grasp the significance of the moment. “Mein Kampf” has always been available in translation and is now just a click away online. But that is not the point. For Germans, the expiry of the copyright has caused hand-wringing and controversy. The question, as they ring in the new year, is not what to do about “Mein Kampf” as it enters the public domain. Rather, it is what Hitler means for Germany today.
 
生活在德国之外的人们可能无法立即明白这个时刻的重要性。《我的奋斗》的翻译版本一直以来总是能够得到,而且现在在网上也能看到这本书。但是,这不是关键所在。对于德国人来说,该书版权的期满已经带来了绝望和争议。随着新的一年的到来,问题不是在《我的奋斗》进入公共领域时拿它怎么办。相反,问题是希特勒对今天的德国人意味着什么。
 
“Mein Kampf” is a mix of autobiography and manifesto that Hitler began writing during a rather comfortable prison stay after his failed putsch of 1923. It was first published in two volumes in 1925 and 1926. The title means “My Struggle”, and Hitler certainly struggled with syntax, grammar and style. One contemporary reviewer ridiculed it as “Mein Krampf” (My Cramp). Much of it is dull or incomprehensible today. Some phrases demand parody: “Columbus's eggs lie around by the hundreds of thousands, but Columbuses are met with less frequently.”
 
《我的奋斗》是一本兼具自传和宣言性质的书,它是希特勒在1923年政变失败后,在一间相当舒服的牢房内开始写作的。它在1925年和1926年首次以两卷本的形式出版。书名 Mein Kampf 的意思是“我的奋斗”,而且希特勒也的确在句法、语法和风格上下足了功夫。一位当代评论家曾经地讥讽地称之为
Mein Krampf (“我的抽风”)。以今天的眼光来看,它的大部分内容枯燥乏味,不可理喻。有些表达需要模仿:“哥伦布的鸡蛋被很多人放置。但是,哥伦布本人的较为经常得到满足。”
 
Woven into the prose are crude Social Darwinism and anti-Semitism that resonated even beyond Germany, as well as hints of the author's murderous potential. Having been gassed by the British in the first world war, Hitler writes: if some of the “Hebrew corrupters of the people had been held under poison gas, as happened to hundreds of thousands of our very best German workers in the field, the sacrifice of millions at the front would not have been in vain.”
 
被绞尽脑汁地写进该书的内容,除了各种有关作者的邪恶潜能的暗示之外,就是甚至在德国之外都能得到共鸣的赤裸裸的社会达尔文主义和反犹太主义。由于曾在第一次世界大战中被英国的毒气所伤,希特勒写道:如果一些“希伯来民族的腐败者被置于毒气之中,就像数以万计的我们最优秀的德国工人在战场身上所遭遇的那样,数百万牺牲在前线的人就不会白死了。”
 
It is not clear how many Germans read the tome. But after 1933, when Hitler seized power, it became a bestseller. From 1936 some municipalities gave it to newlyweds after their vows, and by the end of the second world war about 13m copies were in print.
 
到底有多少德国人读过这本冗长的作品目前不得而知。但是,它在希特勒攫取了权力的1933年后就成为了一部畅销书。从1936年起,有些地方当局就把它分发给了新婚夫妇。到第二次世界大战结束时,大约1300万册被印了出来。
 
After the war it fell to the Americans to decide what to do about the book, because Hitler's last private address, in Munich, was in their sector. The Third Reich was gone and the Federal Republic of Germany would not be born until 1949. So the Americans transferred the rights to the government of Bavaria. It banned printing of the book.
 
战后,由于希特勒最后的私人地址——在慕尼黑——是在他们占领区内,如何处置这本书一度。当时,第三帝国已经不复存在,而德意志联邦共和国要到1949年才会诞生。因此,美国人把版权移交给了巴伐利亚政府。随后,巴伐利亚政府明令禁止了该书的印刷。
 
This approach reflected the first post-war phase in the German treatment of Hitler's legacy. The idea was to suppress anything that might tempt the Germans to fall back under his spell. The Allies and the new German government followed a policy of “de-nazification”, under which known Nazis were banned from important positions. But as the cold war unfolded, West Germany was needed as an ally. For lack of alternatives, ministries, courtrooms and schools employed former Nazis again.
 
这种策略反映了德国对待希特勒遗产的第一个阶段,其背后的想法就是惮压任何可能诱使德国人重新拜倒在他的煽动性言辞之下的事情。当时,盟国和新的德国政府遵循的一种“去纳粹化”的政策。根据这个政策,知名的纳粹分子都被禁止获得重要的职位。但是,随着冷战的展开,西德作为一位盟友是盟国所亟需的。由于缺少替代人选,各个部门、法庭和学校再次雇佣了前纳粹人员。
 
In the late 1940s and 1950s Germans avoided discussing Hitler. Many men were returning from captivity. Many women had been raped. People had been displaced, orphaned or widowed. Germans had been both perpetrators and victims, and had no words for their state of mind. Many were traumatised and could not bear to talk about their experiences. They found it psychologically easier to dwell in the present and keep busy with the Wirtschaftswunder, the post-war “economic miracle”. Many still denied the full scale of the Holocaust. According to Thomas Sandkühler, author of “Adolf H.”, a recent biography, a poll in the 1950s found that almost half of West Germans thought Hitler would have been “one of the greatest German statesmen” if he had not started the war.
 
上世纪40年代末期和50年代,德国人一度避免谈及希特勒。当时,许多男性正在从监禁中返回,许多妇女遭到了强奸。人们背井离乡,家破人忘。那时的德国人,既是施害者也是受害者,心情无法形容。许多人深受伤害,不忍谈及他们的经历。他们发现,活在当下并且忙于Wirtschaftswunder——战后“经济奇迹”,在心理上要更容易一些。许多人仍然否认犹太人大屠杀全面性。据最新传记《阿道夫·H》的作者Thomas Sandkühler,上世纪50年代的一次民调发现,当时,将近一半的西德人认为,要是没有发动战争,希特勒会是“德国最伟大的政治家之一”
 
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A new phase began in the 1960s, after the Israelis captured, tried and executed Adolf Eichmann, a leading Nazi. This made more details of the Holocaust public. Starting in 1963, 22 former SS men were prosecuted in Frankfurt for their crimes in Auschwitz. The Germans were glued to these cases: 20,000 people went to the Frankfurt courtroom during the sessions. For the first time Vergangenheitsbewältigung (“coping with the past”) came to kitchen tables, where it split families.
 
上世纪60年代,在以色列逮捕、审判并处死了臭名昭著的纳粹分子阿道夫·艾希曼后,一个新的阶段开始了。以色列对于艾希曼的处置让更多的大屠杀细节得以公开。从1963年开始,22名前党卫军成员因为他们在奥斯维辛的罪行在法兰克福被处死。德国人一度被这些案件所吸引:庭审期间,20000人曾前往法兰克福法庭。Vergangenheitsbewältigung(“清算过去”)第一次上了餐桌,并在那里分裂了家庭。
 
Sons and daughters accused their parents and professors of complicity and rebelled at home and on campus. Their elders retreated into sanitised tales of what they had done or lived through. A husband-and-wife team of psychoanalysts, Alexander and Margarete Mitscherlich, called this pathology “the inability to grieve” in a book of that title published in 1967. This mired the Germans in an ongoing moral and psychological crisis, they thought.
 
儿女指责父母和大学教授是同谋犯,反出了家庭和校园;他们的父辈退入了消过毒了的有关他们之前的所做所为和生活经历的故事之中。心理学夫妻搭档亚历山大·米切利希和玛格丽特·米切利希夫妇(Alexander and Margarete Mitscherlich)曾在1967年出版的一本同名的书中,称之为“无力悲伤”病理现象。他们认为,这种病理现象令德国人陷入了一种持续的道德和心理危机之中。
 
Official Germany found two responses. East Germany adopted the fiction that its righteous communists had resisted the “fascists” all along. In effect, it never reckoned with the past. But West Germany accepted its guilt and atoned publicly. It became a pacifist society, often called “post-heroic” in contrast to the Allies' warrior cultures. It also became “post-national”: West Germans rarely flew their flag and barely whispered their anthem at sporting events. The young sought identity either sub-nationally (as Swabians or Bavarians, say) or supra-nationally, as good Europeans.
 
德国官方找到了两种应对方式。东德当时所采纳的说法是,正义的共产主义者自始至终都是抵抗“法西斯分子”的。实际上,她从未清算过去。但是,西德接受了她的罪行,并且公开为之赎罪。她变成了一个和平主义者的社会,经常称之为“后英雄主义”社会,以区别于盟国的勇士文化。她还变得“后国家”化了:西德人几乎没有挥舞过自己的国旗,并且在体育赛事上也几乎没有哼唱过国歌。年轻人当时所寻求的身份认同,既有次国家的(土瓦本人或巴伐利亚人),也有超国家的(好的欧洲人)。
 
But starting in the 1970s a pent-up fascination with Hitler began to re-emerge. Two biographies and a documentary came out, and in 1979 Germany aired “Holocaust”, an American television series, which shocked Germans into a new round of soul-searching. Many changed their perceptions in a way that Richard von Weizsäcker, then West Germany's president, expressed in a historic speech in 1985, on the 40th anniversary of Germany's surrender. May 8th 1945 was not the date of Germany's defeat and collapse, he said, but of its liberation.
 
但是,从上世纪70年代开始,一股积压已久的迷恋希特勒的热潮开始再次出现。两本传记和一部纪录片在这个时候出现了,而且德国还在1979年播放了一部美国电视系列片——《大屠杀》,这部系列片震动了德国人,让他们开始了新一轮的心灵探索。许多人以时任西德总统魏茨泽克在1985年纪念德国投降40周年的一篇历史性演讲中所表达出来的一种方式改变了他们的看法。魏茨泽克当时说,1945年5月8日,不是德国的战败和崩溃日,而是她的解放日。
 
After reunification in 1990—the formal end of the post-war era—the German public became ravenous for more research. Der Spiegel, a weekly news magazine, featured Hitler on its cover 16 times during the 1990s. A book by an American historian, Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, in which he argued that ordinary Germans were “Hitler's Willing Executioners”, became a hit. A museum exhibition about the Wehrmacht, Germany's wartime army, argued that ordinary soldiers (rather than just the SS) had participated in the Holocaust. Germans queued around the block to see it.
 
在1990年重新统一后——战后时代的正式结束——德国公众变得渴望更多的调查了。在上世纪90年代期间,新闻周刊《明镜》曾经16次把希特勒搬上它的封面,一本由美国历史学家丹尼尔·乔纳·戈德哈根(Daniel Jonah Goldhagen)撰写并指出普通德国人是“希特勒的志愿行刑者”的书风靡一时,一场有关Wehrmacht——德国战时军队——博物馆展览指出,普通士兵(不仅仅是党卫队士兵)曾经参与了犹太人大屠杀。德国人曾经在街上派着长队观看这个展览。
 
But there was a parallel trend towards what Germans call “Hitler porn” and “Hitler kitsch”. The Führer became a marketing tool. It started in the 1980s when Stern, a magazine, published what it alleged was Hitler's diary, a sensation that turned out to be fake. Since the 1990s the history channel on German television has aired almost nightly documentaries on Hitler's women, henchmen, last days, ailments, table silver or German Shepherd dog (called Blondi). Any footage of the small man with the toothbrush moustache draws an audience. In that way, Hitler has become like sex and violence: bait to sell copies or to grab attention.
 
但是,与此同时,还存在着一种德国人称之为“希特勒色情”和“希特勒猎奇”的趋势。Führer(元首)成为了一件营销工具。这种趋势始于上世纪80年代。当时,一本名为《明星》的杂志发表了自称是希特勒的日记而轰动一时,但是后来证明这是一份赝品。自上世纪90年代以来,德国电视台的历史频道几乎天天晚上都在播放有关希特勒的女人、私生子、最后的日子、各种疾病、银餐具和(名为Blondi )德国牧羊犬的纪录片。任何有关这个留着小胡子的矮个子的镜头都吸引观众。希特勒以这种方式变成了与性和暴力一样的东西:推销书籍或是吸引注意力的诱饵。
 
But this fascination also suggests a new distance. Most of the audience, after all, now have no personal recollection of Hitler. This explains another genre: satire. During his lifetime, it was Germany's enemies who parodied Hitler, as in Charlie Chaplin's film of 1940, “The Great Dictator”. But in 1998 Walter Moers became the first German satirist to score a hit with a comic strip, “Adolf, die Nazi-Sau” (“Adolf, the Nazi pig”). Its producer called the character “the greatest pop star we've ever created”.
 
但是,这种着魔也表明了一种新的距离。毕竟,如今的大多数观众都没有关于希特勒的私人记忆。这就让另一种题材——讽刺——解释得通了。在他的一生中,像在卓别林1940年的电影《大独裁者》中那样夸张地模仿过希特勒的是德国的敌人。但是,瓦尔特·莫尔斯(Walter Moer)在1998年成为了第一位以一部连环漫画——Adolf, die Nazi-Sau (《阿道夫,纳粹猪》)引起轰动的德国讽刺作家。它的出版商称漫画中的人物是“我们迄今所创造的最大的明星。”
 
The latest bestseller is “Look Who's Back” by Timur Vermes, translated into English this year. Hitler wakes up in today's Berlin near his old bunker. Disoriented at first, he so amuses everybody he meets, including his Turkish dry-cleaner, that he is launched on a meteoric career as a comedian. His hip colleagues are convinced that he is a consummate “messed ekta” (Berlinish-English for method actor) offering a subtle critique of modern media culture.
 
最新的畅销书是帖木儿·魏穆斯(Timur Vermes)的《看,谁回来了》(Look Who's Back),这本书在今年已被翻译为英语。希特勒在今天的柏林靠近他古老地堡的地方醒了过来。一开始的不知所措,让他逗乐了包括土耳其裔干洗店店员在内的他所见到的每一个人,以至于他身不由己开始了一段作为一名喜剧演员的飞黄腾达的职业生涯。他周围的同事坚信,他是一名能够提供一种微妙的当代媒体文化批评的“messed ekta”(演技派演员)。
 
For young Germans the Führer has thus receded far enough into the past to seem outlandish and weird rather than potentially seductive. In “Look Who's Back”, he regurgitates inane phrases from “Mein Kampf”, such as: “The titmouse seeks the titmouse, the finch the finch, the stork the stork, the field mouse the field mouse…” But the words and the diction, with its famously rolled “r”, have no effect other than hilarity.
 
于是,对于德国年轻人而言,元首已经远远地退回到了过去,以致于看上去有些稀奇古怪,不可思议,而不再是那个具有潜在蛊惑性的人物了。在《看,谁回来了》一书中,他反反复复地引用了一些出自《我的奋斗》的毫无意义的段落。例如,“山雀追山雀,鸣鸟追鸣鸟,鹳鸟追鹳鸟,田鼠追田鼠……”但是,这些带有著名的卷舌音“r”的措辞,除了搞笑,没有任何意义。
 
One by one, post-war taboos connected to Hitler are vanishing. Flag-waving is one. A breakthrough occurred in 2006, when Germany hosted the football World Cup. For the first time since the war the black-red-and-gold came out everywhere, draping balconies, prams, cars and bikinis. But so did the flags of the visiting countries, and Germany turned into one big street party. Hosts and visitors perceived it as nothing but fun.
 
与希特勒有关的战后禁忌正在一个接一个的消失。挥舞国旗就是其中之一。突破发生在德国主办世界杯足球赛的2006年。当时,黑-红-金三色旗,战后第一次随处可见,悬挂在阳台上、插在婴儿车和汽车上,画在比基尼上。但是,参赛国的国旗也是如此,而且德国已经变成了一场盛大的街头派对。主客双方当时只它当成是一种欢乐,除此之外,别无它意。
 
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In a poll by YouGov this year, Germans were asked what person or thing they associate with Germany. They named Volkswagen first (awkwardly, given subsequent revelations of its cheating). Then came Goethe and Angela Merkel, the chancellor, next the anthem, the national football team and Willy Brandt, a former chancellor. Hitler ranked a distant seventh at 25%. In the same poll 70% of Germans said they were proud of their country. About as many thought that Germany was a model of tolerance and democracy, and that it was time to stop feeling guilt and shame.
 
在YouGov今年的一次民调中,当德国人被问及他们会把什么人物或者事物与德国联系起来时,他们所说的第一个名字是大众公司(考虑到随后关于这家公司欺骗行为的曝光,这多少有些尴尬),其次是歌德和总理默克尔,再往后是国歌、国家足球队和前总理勃兰特。希特勒远远地排在第七位,得票率为25%。在同一个民调中,70%的德国人称为自己国家而骄傲。大约同样多的德国人认为,德国是宽容和民主的一个典范,现在该是停止有犯罪感和耻辱感的时候了。
 
Forever abnormal
永远“不正常”
 
And yet 75% also said that Hitler's crimes mean Germany still cannot be a “normal” country and must play a “special international role”. This means that many Germans somehow combine both pride and penance. Attempts to resolve this inner conflict shape much of German culture today, even when the subject ostensibly has nothing to do with Hitler.
 
但是,75%的德国人同时还认为,希特勒的罪行意味着德国仍不可能成为一个“正常的”国家,并且必须扮演一种“特殊的国际角色”。这意味着,许多德国人不知如何将自豪和忏悔结合在一起。解决这种内心冲突的种种尝试影响了当今德国文化的绝大部分,哪怕主题与希特勒明显无关。
 
Start with Germany's political discourse. In contrast to the French, British and Americans, Germans worry a lot about surveillance by governments, whether foreign or German. The anxiety stems from memories of Hitler's Gestapo (and more recently the East German Stasi). There is also a wide consensus that Germany has a special responsibility towards Israel. Pacifism runs through all mainstream political parties.
 
先来看德国的政治探讨。与法国人、英国人和美国人形成鲜明对比的是,德国人对政府——不管是外国政府还是德国政府——的监控行为非常担忧。这种焦虑源与对希特勒盖世太保的记忆(更近一些的是对东德斯塔西的记忆)。另外,还存在着这样一种广泛的共识:德国对以色列负有一种特殊的义务。和平主义贯穿了所有的主流政党。
 
Indeed Germany is discomfited by power generally, especially its own. At home and abroad it advocates right over might. Hence its apparent obsession with rules, even to the exasperation of its partners (in the euro crisis, for example). Hence also its reluctance to act like a “hegemon”, as its allies often demand. Asked whether Mrs Merkel is “the most powerful leader in the European Union”, her spokesman replies indignantly: “Those are not the categories in which we think.”
 
事实上,德国人通常会被权力,尤其是自己手中的权力,所困扰。无论是在国内还是在国外,她对正确的支持都超过了力量。因而,这才有了她对于规则的明显的痴迷,哪怕是面对伙伴的怒火(例如,在欧元危机中);因而,这才有了她对于扮演“盟主”角色——就像是盟友经常所要求的那样——的不情愿。在被问及默克尔是否是“欧盟中最有权势的领导人”时,她的发言人曾愤怒地答道:“这些不是我们所考虑的范畴。”
 
In political style, too, Germany seems to want constantly to prove that it has moved on from Hitler. Germans flocked to Barack Obama when he visited Berlin as a candidate in 2008 in part for his soaring oratory. But they would never accept such rhetoric in their own politicians, for it would remind them of Hitler's demagogic charisma. Led by Mrs Merkel, “the entire German political class uses a kind of sanitised Lego language, snapping together prefabricated phrases made of hollow plastic”, says Timothy Garton Ash, a British Germanophile at Oxford University. “Because of Hitler, the palette of contemporary German political rhetoric is deliberately narrow, cautious and boring.”
 
在政治风格方面,德国人似乎也是想要不断地证明自己已经远离了希特勒。德国人之所以会在奥巴马2008年以总统候选人身份访问柏林时成群结队地欢迎他,很大一部分是为了他那慷慨激昂的演讲术。但是,他们永远也不会接受他们自己政客的这种高调。因为,这会让他们想起希特勒的那种蛊惑性魅力。牛津大学亲德的英国教授蒂莫西·嘉顿·阿什(Timothy Garton Ash)指出,以默克尔为首的“整个德国政治阶层使用的是一种经过消毒的乐高语言,将各种由中空塑料制成的预制措辞拼接在一起。因为希特勒,当代德国政治语言调色板的狭窄、谨慎和枯燥都是有意的。”
 
Domestic life is governed by Germany's post-war constitution, which was adopted in 1949 as a direct rejoinder to Hitler's worldview and has become a source of patriotism today. Its first article stipulates that “human dignity shall be inviolable”. This translates into police practices that would count as touchy-feely in America, prisons that resemble low-budget hotels, and one of Europe's most welcoming policies towards asylum-seekers, despite all the strain that this has imposed during the current refugee crisis.
 
国内生活由德国的战后宪法来管理,这部宪法是在1949年做为希特勒世界观的一个直接回应而被采纳的,并且已经成为了今天的爱国主义的一个源泉。它的第一条规定:“人类的尊严应当是神圣不可侵犯的”。它的具体体现就是在美国会被认为是过于感情化的警方执法、类似于低预算旅馆的监狱系统,以及欧洲最受欢迎的难民政策之一——尽管这项政策在当前的难民危机期间曾给德国带来了巨大的压力。
 
But because of Hitler, the Germans “no longer dare to develop grand visions”, argues Stephan Grünewald, a German psychologist and author of “Germany on the Couch”. They resist getting excited about big ideas lest they succumb again to some obsession. Instead, Germans publicly don a “cool indifference” in an atmosphere of stultifying political correctness. They are willing to back big reforms—as in the country's energy transition to renewables—only when there is no moral ambiguity. Part of them, says Mr Grünewald, still yearns to graduate from the “historical position of world destroyer to that of world saviour”.
 
但是,德国心理学家、《沙发上的德国人》的作者Stephan Grünewald指出,因为希特勒,德国人“已经不再敢于提出宏大的愿景”。他们抵制为某些大思想而激动,以防再次屈从于某种痴迷。相反,德国人在一种极其单调乏味的政治正确的氛围中,公开地给自己穿上了一件“冷静的漠不关心”的外衣。正如这个国家在向可再生能源转型中所表现的那样,他们只有在没有道德模糊感的情况下,才愿意支持重大的改革。Grünewald称,部分德国人仍旧渴望着完成“从世界摧毁者的历史地位到世界拯救者的历史地位”的转变。
 
This does not mean that Hitler made today's Germans boring. Official Germany still displays virtues the world considers German, such as punctuality and reliability. But behind this “protective shield”, say psychologists at Rheingold Salon, a market-research firm in Cologne, many Germans adopt highly idiosyncratic lifestyles in everything from hobbies to sex. Contrary to stereotype, Germans are often secret eccentrics.
 
这并不说,希特勒造就了今天的德国人的枯燥乏味。德国官方仍在展示世界各国认为德国人所应有的那些优秀品质,例如守时和可靠。但是,正如科隆的市场调研机构Rheingold Salon的心理学家所指出的那样,在这面“防御性盾牌”的后面,许多德国人在从个人爱好到性的一切方面都采纳了高度异质化的生活方式。较之成见,德国人在私下里经常都是些怪人。
 
The hidden Schmerz and Angst
心底的痛苦和焦虑
 
There is, however, an even more intimate domain in which Hitler continues to torment older and middle-aged Germans: their minds. One generation, defined roughly as those born between 1928 and 1947, is called the Kriegskinder (“war children”). The other, born between 1955 and 1970 or so, consists of their children and is called the Kriegsenkel (“war grandchildren”). These terms come from Helmut Radebold, a psychotherapist who is now 80 years old. As a war child he was evacuated from Berlin when it was bombed and then “overrun by the Russians”. At night his mother dug a hole in haystacks, curled up inside and made little Helmut lie on top of her to avoid being found and raped.
 
然而,有一个更加私人的领域是希特勒仍在折磨德国老年人和中年人的,那就是他们的心灵。大致定义为在1928年到1947年间的出生的一代人被称为Kriegskinder(战争儿童);另一代人大致出生在1955年到1970年之间,由他们的孩子所组成,被称为Kriegsenkel(战争孙辈)。这两个词语来自现年80岁的心理治疗师Helmut Radebold。作为一名战争儿童,在柏林遭到轰炸然后又“被俄国人占领”时,他曾被从这座城市中疏散。当时,一到晚上,他的母亲就会在干草堆中挖一个洞,然后蜷缩在里面,并让小Helmut躺在她上面,以避免被人发现或是遭到强奸。
 
In the 1980s Mr Radebold was treating men of his generation for various psychological ailments. Gradually, he saw connections to the war, because these Kriegskinder had “never been allowed to grieve”. “I myself became depressed and often cried,” Mr Radebold recalls. “My own history caught up with me.” He began writing books about the phenomenon.
 
上世纪80年代,Radebold曾给他那代人治疗各种心理疾病。渐渐地,他看到了这些疾病与战争之间的联系,因为这些战争儿童“从未被允许悲伤”。“我自己变得抑郁寡欢,经常嚎啕大哭,”Radebold回忆说。“我自己的历史吸引了我。”他开始撰写有关这种现象的各种书籍。
 
Much of what seems strange today about some older Germans has roots in these repressed memories, he says. Why do these people squirrel away food amid plenty? Why are they scared of fireworks or sirens? Why do some women in nursing homes wail uncontrollably when male carers come to change their nappies at night? As the Kriegskinder age, he says, old traumas resurface.
 
他说,今天的一些德国老人之所以看上去怪异,根源大都在这些被压抑的记忆当中。为什么这些人会在粮食充足的时候储备食品?为什么他们会害怕焰火或者警报?为什么护理院中的一些妇女会在男性看护者晚上给她们换尿布时控制不住地嚎啕大哭?他说,这是由于作为战争儿童年龄时的旧的心灵创伤的再度浮。
 
Their children, the Kriegsenkel, have different problems. As they grew up, their parents were often emotionally frozen. The elders came out of the war in a sedated or numb state from which they never fully emerged, says Sabine Bode, another writer on the topic. This impaired relations with their children, who, by intuiting what must never be said or what was omitted with a sigh, inherited their parents's trauma. Later, as adults, they asked—as Mr Radebold's daughter did—questions such as: Why were you never interested in our little problems? And why do we have nightmares about your firebombings?
 
他们的孩子——战争孙辈——有着不同的问题。在他们长大的过程中,他们的父母经常是心灵封闭的。这个问题的另一位作者Sabine Bode说,年纪较大的德国人以一种他们永远也不能完全从中摆脱出来的压抑或者麻木的状态走出了战争。这种与他们那些已经觉查到肯定有什么事从未被说出来或是以一声叹息来表达的孩子们之间的受损的关系继承了他们父辈的创伤。后来,作为成年人,他们——像Radebold的女儿那样——问出了这样的问题:为什么你们从不对我们的小问题感兴趣?为什么我们会做有关你们空袭大火的噩梦?
 
In recent years support groups have formed for the grandchildren of the war. Only about 40% of middle-aged Germans share such “transgenerational” trauma, says Mr Radebold. But much of the stereotypical German angst and yearning for order and stability originates here. Mrs Bode thinks that many of the Kriegsenkel today have “lower life energy”.
 
近年来,针对战争孙辈的援助组织已经初具规模。Radebold说,虽然只有大约40%的德国中年人认同这种“跨代”创伤。但是,德国人那种典型的对于秩序和稳定的焦虑和渴望的根源大都在此。Bode女士认为,今天的许多战争孙辈都有着“较低的生命能量”。
 
As “Mein Kampf” loses its copyright, German society is more complex than ever. One in five Germans today has immigrant roots and thus no family link to Hitler's time. Many of the young know little history and find Hitler alien and fascinating. A few—somewhat more in what used to be East Germany—shout Sieg heil at neo-Nazi rock concerts because they are drawn to Hitler's ability to shock the establishment. Other Germans have complex cocktails of emotions. They are extra-keen to do good—by helping refugees, for example. Yet they remain afraid of themselves and their compatriots.
 
随着《我的奋斗》失去版权,德国社会变得比以前更加复杂。今天,每5个德国人中就有1人有移民之根,并且没有同希特勒时代有关联的家庭成员没有家庭同。许多年轻人对历史了解不多,而且还发现希特勒是陌生的,有吸引力的。不少人——其中更多的是曾经的东德人——会因为被希特勒冲击体制的能力所吸引而在亲纳粹的摇滚音乐会上喊出“胜利”的口号。其他的德国人则有着复杂而矛盾的情感。他们特别渴望积善行德——例如,通过帮助难民这种方式。然而,他们仍旧担心他们自己和他们的同胞。
 
And so Germany remains vigilant, if not quite paranoid. Most federal states ban licence plates with certain combinations (such as HH 88, code for “Heil Hitler”). An effort is under way to ban a neo-Nazi party called NPD, even though it won a mere 1% in the European elections of 2014.
 
因而,德国人仍旧保持了警惕性,虽然这种警惕性已经不象原来那样偏执。德国的大多数州都明令禁止带有某种组合的车牌(例如,代表“希特勒万岁” 的号码HH88 )。目前,取缔一个叫做NPD的亲纳粹政党的尝试正在进行,尽管这个政党在2014年的欧洲议会选举中仅仅获得了1%的选票。
 
Releasing “Mein Kampf” into the public domain was thus never going to be easy. In 2012 Bavaria convened Jewish and Roma representatives in Nuremberg for a discussion. They agreed that Bavaria should fund a scholarly edition to drive new right-wing publications out of the market and demystify the book. The state parliament approved the plan unanimously. A research institute was selected and got to work. But later that year Bavaria's premier, Horst Seehofer, visited Israel, where some victims' groups opposed the plan.
 
因而,解禁《我的奋斗》并让它进入公共领域从来就不是一件轻松的事情。巴伐利亚州曾于2012年在纽伦堡召集犹太人和罗姆人代表商讨此事。他们当时达成了一致,认为巴伐利亚州应当资助一个学术性的版本,以便把新右翼的版本逐出市场,并揭去罩在这本书上的神秘面纱。州议会匿名通过了这项计划。一个研究机构被选定从事这项工作。但是,当年晚些时候,巴伐利亚州州长Horst Seehofer访问了一些反对这项计划的受害者组织所在的以色列。
 
Faced with these conflicting attitudes, Bavarian officialdom took fright. In 2013 the state pulled out of the scholarly effort, which now proceeds without official backing. Meanwhile, the justice ministers of the 16 federal states have said that they will continue to prosecute anybody hawking the book for “incitement of the people”.
 
面对这些相互冲突的态度,巴伐利亚州政界退缩了。2013年,州里退出了学术方面的研究,如今,这项工作已经没有了官方的支持。与此同时,16个州的司法部长们声明,他们将继续起诉任何试图利用该书“鼓惑民众”的人。
 
If a country can ever be said to be good, Germany today can. And yet Germans know that whenever others are angry with them, they will paint a Hitler moustache on posters of their chancellor. Many Germans are fed up with this—with being “blackmailed”, as Bild, the leading tabloid, complained this spring, when Greece unexpectedly brought war reparations into negotiations about bail-outs in the euro crisis. Other Germans, mainly on the left, fret about a new “post-post-nationalism”, as Germany tentatively articulates its self-interest abroad. For most countries, this would count as normal. For Germany, it remains complicated.
 
如果一个国家能够被说成是好国家的话,那可能就是今天的德国。然而,德国人知道,每当其他人对他们感到不满时,这些人都会在他们总理的海报上画上一撮希特勒式的小胡子。正如今年春天该国知名小报《图片报》在希腊出人意料地将战争赔款加入救助谈判时所抱怨的那样,许多德国人已经厌倦了这种“被敲诈”。其他的德国人,主要是左派,,在德国小心翼翼地阐述自己在国外的利益时,则对一种新的“后后国家主义”抱怨不已。对于大多数国家而言,这都会被当作是正常的。但是,对德国来说,这依然是复杂的。