1. B. The dressing makes themixed salad very inviting.
2. B. He is opening a newconsulting firm.
3. B. The man may find thesupplies in the cabinet.
4. D. He has to use amagnifying glass to see clearly.
5. C. Redecorating heroffice.
6. A. Shortage of containerships.
7. A. Acolleague.
8. C. Hold the banquet at a differentplace.
9. D. He often goes backhome late for dinner.
10. B. To discuss an urgentproblem.
11. C. There is a sharpincrease in India's balance of payment deficit.
12. D. They have unrealisticexpectations about the other half.
13. A. He is lucky to beable to do what he loves.
14. B. It is allglamour.
16. B. Follow closely the fast development oftechnology.
17. B. What type of personnel the team should becomposed of.
18. D. A team manager should develop a certainset skills.
19. A. It is a program allowing people to shareinformation on the Web.
20. B. He met with an entrepreneur named JimClark.
21. B. They had confidence in his newideas.
22. A. Word-of-mouthadvertising.
23. D. To build up theirreputation.
24. D. By using the servicesof large advertising agencies.
25. C. Pre-test alternative ads or commercialsin certain regions.
30. on a vast scale
31. As regards
32. used up
W: Wow, what a variety of salads you’ve got on your menu, could yourecommend something special?
M: Well, I think you can try this mixed salad. We make the dressingwith fresh berries.
Q: what does the man mean?
W: I was talking to Mary the other day, and she mentioned that your newconsulting firm is doing really well.
M: Yes, business paced up much faster than we anticipated. We now haveover 200 clients.
Q: What do we learn about the man from the conversation?
W: Do you know where we keep flash disks and printing paper?
M: They should be in the cabinet if there are any. That’s where we keepall of our office supplies.
Q: what does the woman mean?
W: The printing of this dictionary is so small. I can’t read theexplanations at all.
M: Let me get my magnify glass. I know I just can’t do without it.
Q: What does the man mean?
W: I’m considering having my office redecorated, the furniture is oldand the paint is chipping.
M: I’ll give you my sister-in-law’s number. She just graduated from aninterior designing academy, and will give a free estimate.
Q: What is the woman considering?
W: We have a full load of goods that needs to be delivered. But wecan’t get a container ship anyway.
M: That’s always being a problem in this port. The facilities here arenever able to meet our needs.
Q: What are the speakers talking about?
W: Why didn’t Rod get a pay raise?
M: The boss just isn’t convinced that his work attitude warranted it.She said she saw him by the coffee machine more often than at his desk.
Q: What are the speakers talking about?
W: The hotel called, saying that because of the scheduling there, theywon’t be are able to cater for our banquet.
M: I know an Indian restaurant on the high street that offers a specialdiner for groups. The food is excellent, and the room is large enough toaccommodate us.
Q: What does the man suggest they do?
M: Hello Jane.
W: Hello Paul.
M: Please coming. I’m just getting ready to go home. Susan is expectingme for dinner. I wanted to be on time for a change.
W: Look, I’m terribly sorry to drop in this time on Friday, Paul, butit is rather important.
M: That’s OK. What’s the problem?
W: Well, Paul, I won’t keep you long. You see there is a problem withthe exchange rates. The Indian Rupee has taken a fall on the foreign exchangemarket. You see there is being a sharp increase in Indian’s balance of paymentdeficit.
M: I see. How serious, isn’t it?
W: Well, as you know, there have been reports of unrest India, and theprospects for the Rupee look pretty gloomy.
M: And that’s going to affect us, as if we didn’t have enough problemson our hands.
W: So I thought it would be wise to take out forward exchange cover toprotect our position on the outstanding contract.
M: Just a minute. Forward exchange cover, now what does that meanexactly?
W: Well, it means that JO notes enters into a commitment to sell IndianRupees at the present rate.
M: I see. And how will that benefit us?
W: Well, JO notes wouldn’t lose out if Indian Rupee falls further.
M: What will it cost, Jane?
W: A small percentage, about 1% and that can be built into the price ofthe bike.
M: Well, I don’t suppose there is much choice. All right Jane, let’sput it into action.
Q9: What do we learn aboutthe man’s daily life?
Q10: Why did the woman cometo see the man?
Q11: What makes the womanworry about the Indian Rupee?
W: Charles, among other things, you regarded as one of the America’sgreat masters of the blues. A musical idiom does essentially about loss,particularly the loss of romantic love. Why does love die?
M: People often get into love affairs because they have unrealisticexpectations about somebody. Then when the person doesn’t turn out to be whothey thought he or she was, they start thinking maybe I can change him or her.That kind of thinking is a mistake. Because when the dust settles, people aregoing to be pretty much what they are. It’s a rare thing for anybody to be ableto change who they really are. And this creates a lot of problems.
W: At 62, you continue to spend a large percentage of your lifetouring. What appeals to you about life on the road?
M: Music, I don’t especially love life on the road, but I figure if youare lucky enough to be able to do what you truly love doing, you’ve got theultimate of life.
W: What’s the most widely-held misconception about the life of a famousmusician?
M: People think it’s all glamour. Actually we have the same troublesthey do. Playing music doesn’t mean life treats you any better.
W: How do you feel about being recognized everywhere you go?
M: You think I be used to it by now. But I still find it fascinating.You go to a little town in Japan, where nobody speaks English, yet they knowyou on side and know all your music. I’m still amazed by the love peopleexpress for me and by music.
Q12: What does the man sayabout most people when they get into love affairs?
Q13: What does the man sayabout himself as a singer on the road most of his life?
Q14: What do most peoplethink of the life of a famous musician?
Q15: How does the man feelwhenever he was recognized by his fans?
Changing technology and markets have stimulated the team approach tomanagement. Inflation, resource scarcity, reduced personnel levels and budgetcuts have all underscore the need for better coordination in organizations.Team management provides for this coordination. Team management calls for newskills if personnel potential is to be fully realized. Although a team may be composed ofknowledgeable people, they must learn new ways of relating and working togetherto solve cross-functional problems. When teams consist to be experiencedemployees from hierarchical organizations, who have been condition totraditional organizational culture. Cooperation may not occur naturally, itmainly to be created. Furthermore, the issue is not just how the team canfunction more effectively, but how it integrates with the overall organization,all society that it supposes it serves. A group of individuals is notautomatically a team. Therefore, team building may be necessary in order toimprove the group’s performance. Casey, an expert in this field, suggests thatthe cooperation process within teams must be organized, promoted and managed.He believes the team corporation results when members go beyond theirindividual capabilities, beyond what each is used to being and doing. Together,the team may then produce something new, unique and superior to that of any onemember. For this to happen, he suggests the multi-cultural managers exhibitunderstanding of their own and others’ cultural influences and limitations.They should also cultivate such skills as toleration of ambiguity, persistenceand patience, as well as assertedness. If a team manager exemplifies suchqualities, then the team as a whole would be better able to realize theirpotential and achieve their objectives.
Q 16: What should teammembers do to fully realize their potential?
Q 17: What needs to beconsidered for effective team management?
Q 18: What conclusion can wedraw from what Casey says?
In early 1994, when MarkAndreessen was just 23 years old, he arrived in Silicon Valley with an ideathat would change the world. As a student at the University of Illinois, he andhis friends had developed a program called Mosaic, which allowed people toshare information on the worldwide web. Before Mosaic, the web had been usedmainly by scientists and other technical people, who were happy just to sendand receive text. But with Mosaic, Andreessen and his friends had developed aprogram, which could send images over the web as well. Mosaic was an overnightsuccess. It was put on the university’s network at the beginning of 1993. Andby the end of the year, it had over a million users. Soon after, Andreessenwent to seek his fortune in Silicon Valley. Once he got there, he started tohave meetings with a man called Jim Clark, who was one of the Valley’s mostfamous entrepreneurs. In 1994, nobody was making any real money from theInternet, which was still very slow and hard to use. But Andreessen had seen an opportunity thatwould make him and Clark rich within two years. He suggested they should createa new computer program that would do the same job as Mosaic but would be mucheasier to use. Clark listened carefully to Andreessen, whose ideas andenthusiasm impressed him greatly. Eventually, Clark agreed to invest threemillion dollars of his own money in the project, and to raise an extra fifteenmillion from venture capitalists, who were always keen to listen to Clark’s newideas.
Q 19 What do we learn about Mosaic?
Q 20 What did Andreessen do upon arriving in Silicon Valley?
Q 21Why were venture capitalists willing to join in Clark’s investment?
Advertising informs consumers about the existence and benefits of products and services and attempts to persuade them to buy them. The best form of advertising is probably word of mouth advertising which occurs when people tell their friends about the benefits of products or services that they have purchased. Yet virtually no providers of goods or services relay on this alone,which using paid advertising instead. Indeed many organizations also use institutional or prestige advertising which is designed to build up their reputation rather than to sell particular products. Although large companies could easily set up their own advertising departments, write their own advertisements and by media space themselves.They tend to use the services of large advertising agencies. These are likely to have more resources and more knowledge about all aspects of advertising and advertising media than single company. It is also easier for a dissatisfy company to give its account to another agency. And it would be to fire their own advertising staff. The company generally give the advertising agency and agreed budget. A statement of the objective of the advertising campaign know as brief and overall advertising strategy concerning the message to be communicated to the target customers. The agency creates advertisements and develops a media prime, specifying which media will be used and in which proportions.Agencies often produce alternative ads or commercials that pretested in newspapers, television stations etc. in different parts of the country. Before a final choices was made
prior to a national campaign.
Q22 What is probably the best form of advertising according to the speaker?
Q23 What does the speaker say is the proposes of many organization using prestige advertising ?
Q24 How did large companies generally handle their advertising?
Q25 What would advertising agencies often do before a national campaign?
Extinction is a difficult concept to grasp. It is an eternal concept. It is not at all like the killing of individual life forms that can be renewed through normal processes of reproduction. Nor is simply diminishing numbers.Nor is it damage that can somehow be remedied or for which some substitute can be found. Nor is it something that only affects our own generation. Nor is it something that could be remedied by some supernatural power. It is, rather, an absolute and final act which there is no remedy on earth or in heaven. A species once extinct, it’s gone forever. However many generations succeed us in coming centuries, none of them will ever see this species that we extinguish. Not only us we bring about extinction of life on a vast scale. We are also making the land and the air and sea so toxic that the very conditions of life are being destroyed.As regard natural resources ,not only are the none renewable resources being used up in a of frenzy of processing, consuming and disposing but we are also ruining much of our renewable resources. Such as the very solid self on which terrestrial life depends. The change that is taking place on the earth and in our minds is one of the greatest changes ever to take place in human affairs. Perhaps thegreatest, since we are talking about is not simply another historical change or cultural modification. But it change the geological and biological as well as psychological order of magnitude.