爱思英语编者按:在这个人才流动极为频繁的时代,很多人背井离乡生活在陌生的城市。城市吸引年轻人的不再仅仅是机会和财富,“认同感”成为重要的考量指标。什么是城市认同感?你对长居的城市有认同感或自豪感吗?这是否是你想生活的那座城?

Belonging and alienation in china
北上广深,想说爱你不容易

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在这个人才流动极为频繁的时代,很多人背井离乡生活在陌生的城市。城市吸引年轻人的不再仅仅是机会和财富,“认同感”成为重要的考量指标。什么是城市认同感?你对长居的城市有认同感或自豪感吗?这是否是你想生活的那座城?

Before he graduated from Huazhong University of Science and Technology this year, 22-year-old Liu Can spent every vacation interning in a different city.
22岁的刘灿今年刚从华中科技大学毕业,大学时期的每个假期他都会去不同的城市实习。

“I wanted to experience each of them before settling down in one. They’re all great in terms of career opportunities, but I identified best with the vibrant and energetic vibe of Shenzhen,” he said.
“我想在安顿下来之前体验不同城市的生活。这些城市都有很好的就业机会,但是我觉得最有生机和活力的还是深圳,”刘灿说。

Young people like Liu attach great importance to the chemistry they have with a city. It’s a phenomenon so common that researchers decided to investigate what it means to feel a “sense of belonging” somewhere.
像刘灿这样的年轻人更关心他们和城市之间是否能擦出火花。时下,这种现象十分常见,于是研究人员决定调查一下何为人在某地会有“归属感”。

Academics from Sun Yat-sen University surveyed 22,991 people from seven Chinese metropolises: Chongqing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Beijing, Wuhan, Tianjin and Shenzhen. They found that residents in the first three identify most strongly with their city.
中山大学的学者调查了中国7座城市(重庆、上海、广州、北京、武汉、天津和深圳)的22991名市民。他们发现前三座城市(重庆、上海和广州)居民的城市认同感最强。

The research group divided this sense of identification into four categories, namely cultural, personal, status and regional identification. Put simply, these categories reflect how well a city matches an individual’s needs, both emotional and practical.
研究小组将这种认同感分成了四类,分别是文化认同、身份认同、地位认同和地域认同。简单来说,这种分类反映了城市满足个人情感和实际需要的程度。

Finding a city with the right combination of characteristics is valuable for young people, Zhang Zhi’an, dean of the School of Communication and Design at Sun Yat-sen University, told the press. Traditionally, choosing a city involved weighing a number of tangible factors. But nowadays, young people put emphasis on the intangible qualities of a city, which determine how well they fit in, he said.
中山大学传播与设计学院院长张志安告诉记者,寻找一个个性和自己匹配的城市对年轻人来说很重要。通常选择一座城市需要衡量一些有形的因素。不过现在年轻人更重视城市无形的特质,这关系到他们能否很好地融入,张志安补充到。

“In a city with strong sense of identity, its residents form a ‘we’ sentiment, recognizing with each other and feeling like part of a larger community,” said Yang Yiyin, a researcher of psychology at Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.
“在一座认同感高的城市,居民会形成一种“我们”的观念,他们互相承认彼此,并觉得自己是大社区的一员,“中国社会科学院心理学研究员杨宜音说。

Chen Chen agrees. The 26-year-old Hunan-born architect left Beijing for Chongqing after her attempt to get a local hukou, or permanent residence permit, was to no avail. Without a Beijing hukou, people are not allowed to buy an apartment or a car in the city, unless they pay social insurance or income tax for more than five years. But there is no law restricting Beijing locals from making these purchases.
陈晨同意这种说法。这个26岁的湖南籍建筑师在发现无法取得北京户口之后,离开北京去了重庆。没有北京户口的人不能在北京买房买车,除非他们缴纳五年以上的社保或个人所得税。而北京本地人则不用受这种法律约束。

“Chongqing, by contrast, allows migrants to buy an apartment without a local hukou. Some even get a hukou because of the real estate they bought. The feeling of being welcomed and accepted is what attracts me more than the city’s opportunity and wealth,” Chen said.
“相比而言,外地人没有户口也能在重庆买房。有些人甚至在购买房产之后拿到了重庆户口。这让外地人觉得被欢迎和接纳,这比机会和财富更吸引我,“陈晨说。