本文由颜林海授权爱思英语发布,转载请注明出处和作者

编者按:爱思英语网推出全新栏目《佳作欣赏》,旨在为各位网友提供互相、探讨、交流的平台。《佳作欣赏》主要设置以下子栏目:英文写作,英汉互译,方法,人生感悟。除英文写作以外,其余子栏目中英文皆可。如果您有好的作品,请向我们推荐。原创优先,转载作品请注明作者及出处。爱思,因你而精彩;爱思,大家的平台!

在线投稿:http://www.24en.com/custom/add.html

Looks could kill
----Criminals with untrustworthy faces get harsher sentences

“以貌取人”
长相让人生疑的犯人获得的判刑更为严厉

Jul 25th 2015 From the print edition
貌相杀人

PEOPLE decide quickly how trustworthy a stranger is, based on what his face looks like. And experiments show that, regarding any particular individual, they generally come to the same conclusion. There really are, it seems, trustworthy and untrustworthy faces—though, surprisingly, there is little consensus among researchers as to whether someone whose face is deemed devious really is more likely to betray a trust. The perceivedly untrustworthy do, however, suffer for their phizogs. And a study published in this month's Psychological Science suggests that in extreme cases—in America at least—this suffering may be fatal.
陌生人是否可信,人们是根据其长相来做出快速判断的。而且实验表明,就任何个人而言,人们一般都会得出相同的判断。长相分可靠与不可靠,好像真有其事——然而,令人吃惊的是,研究者之间却很少在这个问题上达成共识,即被认定长相不可靠的人是否真的更有可能失信于人。然而,让人感觉不可信的人的确会遭牢狱之苦。本月出版的《心理科学》杂志发表的一篇论文认为,在极端案例中---至少美国如此---这种遭遇可能是免不了的。

John Wilson and Nicholas Rule, psychologists at the University of Toronto, looked at convicted murderers in the American state of Florida, which retains the death penalty. They selected 371 prisoners on death row and a further 371 who were serving life sentences. To avoid confounding variables, all those chosen were male and were either black or white (no Asians or other ethnic groups). Each sample included 226 white convicts and 145 black ones. A group of 208 volunteers whom Dr Wilson and Dr Rule had recruited were then invited to rate photographs of each convict’s face for trustworthiness, on a scale of one to eight, where one was “not at all trustworthy” and eight was “very trustworthy”.
多伦多大学心理学家约翰.威尔逊博士和尼古拉.鲁尔博士,对美国弗罗里达州(至今保留死刑判决)被判了刑的杀人犯进行了观察。两位心理学家选择了371名死刑犯,还另选了371名终身监禁犯。为了避免干扰变量的出现,所有被选者都是男性,有黑人有白人(亚洲人或其他民族的人均未入选)。每个被试组人员包括226名白人囚犯和145名黑人囚犯。约翰.威尔逊博士和尼古拉.鲁尔博士还招募了208名志愿者,这组人员被邀请去对每一个囚犯的脸面照进行可靠性评分,分数范围为1-8分,1为“最不可靠”,8为“最可靠”。

The results of all this work revealed that the faces of prisoners who were on death row had an average trustworthiness of 2.76 and that those serving life sentences averaged 2.87. Not a huge difference, but one that was statistically significant (it, or something larger, would have happened by chance less often than one time in 100). That suggests untrustworthy-looking defendants are more likely to face a lethal injection, if convicted, than trustworthy-looking ones.
这项研究的结果显示:死刑犯的脸像平均值为2.76,终身监禁者平均值为2.87。二者差数不大,但在统计学上,其意义非凡(这个差数或更大的差数,偶然率通常低于一1%)。这就意味着长相不可靠的被告,一旦宣布有罪,被判处注射死刑的可能性大于长相可靠的被告。

To show that this was not a result of people with untrustworthy faces actually committing more heinous (and therefore death-penalty-worthy) murders, Dr Wilson and Dr Rule also looked at the faces of those who had been convicted of murder, sentenced and then acquitted on appeal, usually on the basis of DNA evidence. These innocents, too, had more often been sentenced to death in their original trials if their faces were rated untrustworthy. In Floridian courts, at least, it seems that your face really is your fortune.
为了证明这个结果并不是仅仅来自于犯有十恶不赦(即死有余辜)的罪犯,威尔逊博士和鲁尔博士还对那些宣告犯有谋杀罪、被判刑而又根据DNA证据洗脱罪名的人的脸像进行了观察。这些无辜者,如果其脸像被判定不可靠,在最初判决中也通常被判处死刑。至少在佛罗里达州法庭,好像脸像真的决定了你的命运。