爱思英语编者按:今年匈牙利已经接收了超过150,000的入境者,这股人潮也没有减弱的势头。上个月德国告诉叙利亚移民,该国已停止执行欧盟的都柏林公约,该公约指出移民需要向其到达的第一个欧洲国家申请避难。德国现在接收所有叙利亚移民的庇护申请,不管他们从哪里来,但是德国仍然认可都柏林公约有效。

Europe's migrant crisis
欧洲移民危机

Migrants are thronging Budapest's train station
移民蜂拥布达佩斯火车站

Germany beckons, but in Hungary the turnstiles are shut
德意志伸手示意,但是匈牙利闸门紧闭

SEPTEMBER 2nd was burning hot in Budapest, the latest in a week of blazing-hot summer days, and at the city’s Keleti ("Eastern") railway station the tension seemed about to go through the roof. Hundreds of asylum seekers gathered at the station's entrance, facing off against a line of impassive riot police. Slowly, then more and more emphatically, the demonstrators began chanting: “Germany, Germany”. Meanwhile, commuters picked a path through sleeping families.

9月2日的布达佩斯焦灼炎热,最近一周都是酷暑大热天,布达佩斯Keleti(“东方”,下面均译为“东方火车站”)火车站的焦灼感似乎快冲破屋顶了。成百上千的寻求庇护者聚集在车站入口,对抗着一排面无表情的防暴警察。人群变得越发坚决,慢慢地他们开始高喊:“德国,德国”。与此同时,本市通勤者从那些(站口)睡觉的一家子一家子人里开出了一条过道。

Several thousand people are now camped out around Keleti, after the Hungarian government on Tuesday cleared out the station and blocked migrants from travelling on to western Europe. The decision was an about-face: the previous day hundreds of migrants had been allowed on trains to Vienna, leading to furious protests from Austrian officials. The imposing 19th-century ochre building is now a key pressure point in Europe’s ongoing refugee crisis. The migrants sit around listlessly, waiting, sleeping on bare concrete or scraps of cardboard. Many have been travelling for weeks. Some have spent their last funds on train tickets which they now cannot use.

眼下有几千人在Keleti附近安营扎寨,此前周二匈牙利政府清理了该火车站一带,并禁止移民从此处继续前行进入西欧。这一决定可谓是180度的大转变:就在前一天上千名移民还获准坐上了驶向维也纳的火车,那也导致了来自奥地利官员的强烈抵制。(东方火车站)那威严的赭石建筑现在成了欧洲持续中的难民危机的关键压力点。移民们疲乏地在那里坐着、等着,直接睡在混凝土地面上或者零星的硬纸板上。不少人已经背井离乡在路上数周,一些把自己最后的积蓄花在了火车票上,现在却用不了。

The closure of the railway route is good news for people-smugglers. Some of the migrants are desperate enough to risk a perilous overland journey in a sealed vehicle. In August, 71 people were found dead of suffocation in an abandoned truck in Austria. This week 24 Afghan teenagers were rescued by Austrian police after they were found shut in an airtight compartment inside a vehicle.

火车线路的关停对于人贩来说是个好消息。对于登上一辆密封的车辆,冒险开始危险的陆路迁徙,一些移民已经感到很绝望了。8月份,71人被发现位于奥地利的一辆遗弃货车里窒息而亡。本周,有24名来自阿富汗的青少年获得奥地利警方的营救,他们被发现关在汽车里一个密闭的区间里。

Politicians seeking an excuse to reject asylum seekers have termed them economic refugees, rather than political ones. For most, the distinction is arbitrary—they are fleeing both war and a devastated economy. Ahmed, from Damascus, has been waiting at Keleti station for three days after journeying overland for more than three weeks through Turkey, Greece, Macedonia and Serbia. He says he is looking for two things: physical safety, and the ability to work and rebuild his life. Once in western Europe, Ahmed (who asked that this real name not be used) hopes to bring his family over from Syria. “We have escaped death four times," he says. "Our children are scared all the time. Even if you close a door loudly you can see the fear in their eyes.”

借口欲拒绝这些寻求庇护者的政客们称这些人为经济难民,而非政治难民。对于他们中的大多数人说,两者差别模糊难分——他们既是为了摆脱战争,也是在逃离垮台的经济体。阿麦德(Ahmed),来自于大马士革(注:叙利亚首都),他已经在东方火车站(Keleti)那里等待3天之久了,此前他经历了三周多的路途,穿越了土耳其、希腊、马其顿和塞尔维亚。他谈及自己想要的两个东西:身体上的安全,以及工作和重建生活的能力。一旦到了欧洲,阿麦德(他要求本报不要使用他这个真实名字)说希望能把他的家人从叙利亚那接过来。“我们从鬼门关那里走了四遭,”他说。“我们的孩子一直处在恐慌之中。即便你只是大声关个门,你都能看到他们眼神里的恐惧。”

For now, transit zones have been set up in each of Budapest’s three main railway stations, with toilets, running water and showers. A doctor and a nurse provide rudimentary medical services. Volunteers coordinate supplies of food, water and clean clothes. That rough-and-ready approach worked when a few hundred people were camped out at the station. But the system has been overwhelmed by the new numbers, says Zsuzsanna Zsohar, spokeswoman for Migration Aid, a volunteer network. Given the conditions, she says, it is surprising how peacefully they have behaved.

到目前为止,布达佩斯三个主要的火车站已经设立了中转区,配备厕所、自来水和淋浴设备,有一名医生和一名护士提供基础医疗服务,有志愿者协调供给食物、饮用水和干净衣服。这种简陋但即时的应对措施在火车站只聚集了小几百人时还是奏效的,但这种方法面对新增的人数措手不及,Zsuzsanna Zsohar说道,她是志愿者网站Migration Aid(移民救助)的发言人。考虑到眼下的条件(很差),她说,这些移民的平静表现令他们很惊讶。

Many of the refugees have sidestepped Hungary’s immigration bureaucracy in their rush westwards. But now the door has been closed, it would be best to leave the station and go the official route, says Ms Zsohar: go to the migration office, register and obtain an ID card, then go to their assigned refugee camp while they decide what to do next. Still, she adds, the authorities need to make the camps more bearable. They are currently overcrowded, the food is bad and the rooms are full. "And the authorities need to handle people like humans, not like animals.”

很多移民在他们的西进运动中避开了匈牙利的移民局,但如今大门紧闭,最好的做法就是离开火车站、走官方路线,Zsohar女士说:去移民办公室吧,登记注册,获取一张ID身份卡,再去他们的指定收容点,同时再想一想下一步怎么走。她还补充道,当权需要加强营点的建设。那些地方现在人满为患,提供的食物很糟,所有房间都住满了。“当权需要把移民们当人看,而不是动物。”

Despite the health and sanitation risks, authorities will not provide any more facilities at Keleti station, as it is not an official shelter and the asylum seekers are not supposed to be there. “The government will not institutionalise an illegal situation,” says Zoltan Kovacs, a government spokesman. Hungarian officials say Europe’s immigration system is broken; the country is constructing a fence along its 175-kilometre border with Serbia, the main route for asylum seekers. So far, rather than deterring migrants, the fence has triggered a rush of people trying to reach Europe before it is completed.

且不论健康和卫生方面的风险,当权机构不会在东方火车站(Keleti)那里提供任何其它设备,因为那里既不是官方收容所,寻求庇护的难民们也不应该出现在那里。“政府不会将一个非法场所合法制度化,”一名政府发言人Zoltan Kovacs如是说。匈牙利官员称欧洲的移民体系已经被破坏,他们本国正在和塞尔维亚一起沿着175公里的边境建立一道防护墙,那里正是难民们的主要路径。到目前来看,这道防护墙没有起到制止作用,反而让难民们更试图在其竣工之前抢先涌进欧洲。

Hungary has received more than 150,000 arrivals this year and the human tide looks unlikely to abate. Germany acknowledged last month that for Syrian migrants, it has stopped enforcing the EU's Dublin agreement, which requires migrants to apply for asylum in the first European country they reach. It is accepting asylum requests from all Syrian migrants regardless of where they have travelled through, though it says the Dublin rules still hold. Mr Kovacs terms this "doublespeak", and Hungary and other central European governments complain Germany is only encouraging more migrants to try to make the trek across their countries, and to disregard authorities' efforts to manage them. The people camped out at Keleti station, Mr Kovacs insists, are breaking the law; they need to report to their designated camps to receive identification and visas. But there is little he can do to dissuade them. “They have only one thing on their mind, ‘I want to go to Germany’.”

今年匈牙利已经接收了超过150,000的入境者,这股人潮也没有减弱的势头。上个月德国告诉叙利亚移民,该国已停止执行欧盟的都柏林公约,该公约指出移民需要向其到达的第一个欧洲国家申请避难。德国现在接收所有叙利亚移民的庇护申请,不管他们从哪里来,但是德国仍然认可都柏林公约有效。Kovacs先生将德国的做法称之为“巧言令色、故弄玄虚”,匈牙利以及其它中欧政府都在抱怨德国只是在鼓励更多移民艰难跋涉到他们的国家,然后又会漠视他们对那些难民的管理。针对驻扎在东方火车站(Keleti)外面的人,Kovacs先生坚持称那是违法行为,称他们应该到指定营点报到,申请获取身份证明和签证。但是他不知道怎么做才能劝阻他们(离开车站)。“他们脑子里只想着一件事,‘我要去德国’。”


注:

都柏林公约

一部欧盟法律,指定难民在日内瓦公约(经过纽约协议修订)下寻求政治避难的申请流程。目的是理清哪个欧盟成员国负责特定的寻求避难者,并确保至少一个成员国处理申请。