1、The Whigs were those who opposed absolute monarchy and supported the right to religious freedom for nonconformists. The Tories were traditionalists who wanted to preserve the powers of the monarchy and the church of England.辉格党人是指哪些反对绝对主权，支持新教徒宗教自由权利的人，托利党人是指那些支持世袭王权的人。
2. During the late 19th and early 19th centuries the open-field system ended when the Enclosure acts enabled weal their landowner to seize any land to which tenants could prove no legal title.
3.The industrial revolution refers to the mechanization of industry and the consequent change in social and economic organization in Britain in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
4.The limited monarchy which resulted from the powerful economic interests in the community could exert their influence on Government policy.
5.The first steam engine was devised by Thomas newcomer at the end of 17th century, and the Scottish inventor james watt modified and improved the design in 1765.
6.As a result of the industrial revolution, Britain was by 1830 the “workshop of the world”.