1、The Whigs were those who opposed absolute monarchy and supported the right to religious freedom for nonconformists. The Tories were traditionalists who wanted to preserve the powers of the monarchy and the church of England.辉格党人是指哪些反对绝对主权,支持新教徒宗教自由权利的人,托利党人是指那些支持世袭王权的人。

2. During the late 19th and early 19th centuries the open-field system ended when the Enclosure acts enabled weal their landowner to seize any land to which tenants could prove no legal title.

18世纪末,19世纪初,《圈地法》地颁布使较富有的土地主摄取佃农不能证明合法的土地,因此“开放田地”结束。

3.The industrial revolution refers to the mechanization of industry and the consequent change in social and economic organization in Britain in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

工业革命指17世纪末,18世纪初英国工业的机械化,以及因此而导致的社会结构和经济结构的变化。

4.The limited monarchy which resulted from the powerful economic interests in the community could exert their influence on Government policy.

君主权利的限制,使得强大的经济利益集团能对议会政策施加影响。

5.The first steam engine was devised by Thomas newcomer at the end of 17th century, and the Scottish inventor james watt modified and improved the design in 1765.

十七世纪末,托马斯。纽卡墨设计了第一台蒸气机,苏格兰发明家詹姆斯。华特修改并改良了设计方案(1765)。

6.As a result of the industrial revolution, Britain was by 1830 the “workshop of the world”.

作为工业革命的结果,英国到1830年止成为“世界工场”。