1. Meanwhile, Oliver Cromwell and the “Rump” declared England a commonwealth. In December 1653,by an Instrument of Government, he became Lord Protector of the commonwealth of England.

克伦威尔用“小议会”取代“残余国会”,1653.12,根据《施政文件》,他成了英格兰共和国护国会。

2. The Parliament thus elected in 1660 resolved the crisis by asking the late king’s son to return from his long exile in France as king CharlesⅡ. The Restoration as it was called, was relatively smooth.

1660年选出的议会要求上任国王的儿子从长期流亡的法国回国做查尔斯二世,从而解决叻危机,所谓王权复辟相对平和。

3. Te Eglish politicians rejected JamesⅡ, and appealed to a protestant king, William of Orange to invade and take the English throne. This take-over became known as the Glorious Revolution.

英国政客反对詹姆斯二世。他们呼吁新教的国王,奥兰治亲王威廉入侵英国夺取王位。这就是“光荣革命”。

4. William and Mary jointly accepted the Bill of Rights which confirmed the principle of parliamentary supremacy. Thus the age of constitutioned monarchy of a monarchy.

威廉和玛丽共同接受了《权利法案》,此法案确立了议会权利至高无上的原则,议会限制王权的君主立宪制时代开始了。

5. It was during Anne’s reign that the name great Britain came into being when in 1707, the Act of Union united England and Scotland.

正是安妮统治的1707年,大不列颠这个名称产生,《联合法》把英格兰和苏格兰统一起来。