1. Meanwhile, Oliver Cromwell and the “Rump” declared England a commonwealth. In December 1653,by an Instrument of Government, he became Lord Protector of the commonwealth of England.


2. The Parliament thus elected in 1660 resolved the crisis by asking the late king’s son to return from his long exile in France as king CharlesⅡ. The Restoration as it was called, was relatively smooth.


3. Te Eglish politicians rejected JamesⅡ, and appealed to a protestant king, William of Orange to invade and take the English throne. This take-over became known as the Glorious Revolution.


4. William and Mary jointly accepted the Bill of Rights which confirmed the principle of parliamentary supremacy. Thus the age of constitutioned monarchy of a monarchy.


5. It was during Anne’s reign that the name great Britain came into being when in 1707, the Act of Union united England and Scotland.