1. The name the Wars of Roses was referring to the battles between the great house of Lancaster, symbolized by the red rose, and that of York, symbolized by the white.


2. In 1455, after Henry Ⅵ hand completely lost his reason, war broke out between the Yorkists and the Lancastrians. In 1461, the Duke of York’s son Edward, emerged the victor and was proclaimed as Edward Ⅳ.


3. On August 22, 1458, the last battle of the Wars of Roses was fought between Richard Ⅲ and Henry Tudor.


4. The reform began as a struggle for a divorce and end in freedom from the Papacy. Henry Ⅷ wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon. But Pope Clement Ⅲ refused to annul his marriage to Catherine.


5. Henry’s reform was to get rid of the English Church’s connection with the Pope, and make an independent Church of England.


6. The laws (e.g. the Act of Succession of 1534 and the Act of Supremacy of 1535) made his reform possible stressed the power of the monarch and certainly strengthened Henry’s position.