1. The name the Wars of Roses was referring to the battles between the great house of Lancaster, symbolized by the red rose, and that of York, symbolized by the white.

玫瑰战争这个词是指两个家族间的战争,以红玫瑰为标志的蓝凯斯特家族和以白玫瑰为标志的约克家族。

2. In 1455, after Henry Ⅵ hand completely lost his reason, war broke out between the Yorkists and the Lancastrians. In 1461, the Duke of York’s son Edward, emerged the victor and was proclaimed as Edward Ⅳ.

1455年,当亨利六世再也没有理由(将国家交给摄政者管理时),战争在约克家族成员和蓝凯斯特家族成员中爆发了。1461年,约克公爵的儿子爱德华战胜成功成为爱德华四世。

3. On August 22, 1458, the last battle of the Wars of Roses was fought between Richard Ⅲ and Henry Tudor.

1458年8月22日,玫瑰战争的最后一次战役在理查德三世和亨利都铎之间展开。

4. The reform began as a struggle for a divorce and end in freedom from the Papacy. Henry Ⅷ wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon. But Pope Clement Ⅲ refused to annul his marriage to Catherine.

改革以争取离婚开始,以脱离教皇而告终,亨利八世想与阿拉贡的公主凯瑟琳离婚,但教皇克莱蒙拒绝取消凯瑟琳和亨利八世之间的婚姻。

5. Henry’s reform was to get rid of the English Church’s connection with the Pope, and make an independent Church of England.

亨利改革的目的是拜托英国教会与教皇的联系,成立独立的英格兰教会。

6. The laws (e.g. the Act of Succession of 1534 and the Act of Supremacy of 1535) made his reform possible stressed the power of the monarch and certainly strengthened Henry’s position.

使改革可行的法律(如1534年的《继承法案》和1535年的《至尊法案》)强调了君主的权利并自然加强了亨利的地位。