贾平凹的“古文功底”
Jia Pingwa and Classic Chinese

(选自《英语世界》2015年第1期)

文/屈胜文 译/祝伟婧

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贾平凹的文学语言让许多人赞叹他古文功底深厚,但他却解释说这是得益于对西安土话的研究。西安土话中遗存着许多上古语言的词汇,特别是动词,它们生动的表意令贾平凹的写作受益匪浅。比如西安人常用的“咥”就是古语遗存,是吃的意思,但吃得凶猛。
Jia Pingwa’s amazing diction in his works prompts a popular assump¬tion that he is well-versed in clas¬sic Chinese. Jia, however, insists that he benefits from his study of the Xi’an dialect. Many classic Chinese words have survived in the local dialect, and those vivid verbs, in particular, are conducive to his writing. An ancient word still in use today, the character 咥, for instance, means “to bolt or devour food”.

典雅的陕西话
The Elegant Dialect

陕西话曾被冠以“土”的标签,但在贾平凹看来,如果依音笔写出来,那便是文言文中的极典雅的词语。抱孩子不说“抱”,说“携”;口中没味不说“没味”,说“寡”;即使骂人滚开也不说“滚”,说“避”。
The Shaanxi dialect was once la¬beled “crude”, but Jia Pingwa, a famous writer, argues that if the spoken words are written down, they would turn out to be elegant terms in classic Chinese. To say holding a baby, one would not use “hold” but “carry”. To describe something tasteless, one would use the word “insipid”. Even when telling an¬other person to get lost, one would say “evade”.

斯文的北音
A Refined Northern Dialect

有些外地人认为陕西话土,实际上陕西话古雅而充满内涵:“端走”即直走,“汤宽”就是汤多,“吃毕”则为吃完……细品起来,这些词哪一个不是极具文化内涵。正如作家王安忆听罢陕西乡音的评价:“这话好听,是北音,可却柔极了,字与字之间有舒缓的拖腔,用字又那么斯文。”
Construed as uncouth by some out-of-towners, the Shaanxi dialect is actually imbued with classic elegance. “Duan zou” (端走), for example, means “to walk straight”, “tang kuan” (汤宽) “abundant soup”, and “chi bi” (吃毕)” “meal finished”. A scrutiny of these phrases reveals a cultural reserve of quaint senses. “This dialect sounds pleasant. Though spoken by the northerners, it is very soft,  each char¬acter is followed by a measured drawl, and the diction is refined,” observed Wang Anyi, a renowned writer, upon savoring the Shaanxi dialect.

方言与雅言
The Dialect and the Elegant Language

从西周开始,关中话就以大雅清丽被称为“雅言”,历经秦汉成为一统天下的语言典范,相当于今天的普通话。现在,陕西方言里面还留存着一些值得玩味的“雅言”,比如外地人最爱学的一句陕西方言“嫽咋咧”(太棒了),其中“嫽”字,形容美妙至极,出自《诗经 •陈风•月出》:“月出皎兮,佼人嫽兮”。
Ever since the Western Zhou Dynasty, the language spoken in Guanzhong has been called “elegant language”. Modeled after elegance and aesthetics, it became the national standard tongue after the Qin and Han dynasties, serving as the exemplary language across China. Modern Shaanxi dia¬lect still maintains some traits of classic Chinese, such as the phrase “嫽咋咧”(amazing) that non-locals love the most. The character “嫽”, literally, “utmost loveliness”, comes from “Moonlight”, the “Odes of Chen” in the Book of Odes: “The moon comes forth in her brightness; how lovely is that beautiful lady.”

方言中的人生观
The Philosophy in Dialect

陕西话中把“我”读作“额”,据说西安人这种自称应该写作“厄”。“厄”这个字在汉语中多表达命运的曲折以及凶险,如此自称是表现在经历千年风霜和历史兴衰后的豁然开朗,因为在命运中暗含了很多凶险和难关,认清了这一点,才会这样自我称呼,对自己也是一种警醒。
In the dialect of Shaanxi, the word for “wo” (我 , meaning “I”) is pronounced “er”. Some linguists be¬lieve that this word should be written as “厄”, a character that signifies the winding paths and dangers down the road of life. This personal pronoun shows an open and clear view on life, which only comes after having wit¬nessed thousands of years of history and the rise and fall of dynasties. Peo¬ple, who use this word as a personal pronoun, realize that there are many risks and hurdles in life. It serves as a self-reminder.

西安“闲人”
Loafers in Xi’an

闲人,西安话读“hán人”,不是指简单意义上的混混儿,而类似于北京的顽主,且更彪悍。贾平凹写过一篇散文为西安闲人画像,一条条读下来,你会以为是写张嘉译。在西影厂的那些年,张嘉译常夹个包、走路一晃一晃,直不起背,活脱脱一个街头闲人。现在形象变了,但讲义气、爱出头仍是闲人本色。 □
闲人 (loafer), pronounced “hán rén” in the Xi’an dialect, does not refer to a loafer in the normal sense, but someone more valorous than a “顽主” (playful guy), a term with a derogatory sense in the Beijing dialect. Jia Pingwa wrote a piece of prose to portray loafers in Xi’an. Yet when you read it over, you’d think that Jia was writing about Zhang Jiayi, a famous actor. During his years at Xi’an Studio, Zhang always clutched a briefcase under his arm, walking in a staggering and slouchy way! What a true loafer on the street. Now his image has changed, but his devotion to friendship and willingness to act out remain true characteristics of the Xi’an loafer. ■

(选自《微观西安》,商务印书馆,2014)

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