Ⅰ动词(时态,语态,用法,省略,一致性等)

时态

1)现在完成进行时态 (have/has been + -ing 分词构成): 动作或状态从过去某时开始,继续到现在,可能继续下去,也可能刚刚结束.

I’ve been writing letters for an hour.

I’ve been sitting in the garden.

2)过去完成进行时(由had been + ing分词构成): 过去某个时刻以前一直在进行的动作

I’d been working for some time when he called.

We had been waiting for her for two hours by the time she came.

3)将来完成进行时: 将来某个时刻以前一直在进行的动作.

By next summer, he will have been working here for twenty years.

In another month’s time she’ll have been studying here for three years.

4)将来完成时(由shall/will have + 过去分词构成): 将来某时已发生的事.

I shall have finished this one before lunch.

They’ll have hit the year’s target by the end of October.

语态

可以有两种被动结构的类型,例如:

He was said to be jealous of her success.

It was said that he was jealous of her success.

能同时适用于上述两个句型的主动词通常都是表示“估计”,“相信”等意义的动词,常见的有assume,believe,expect,fear,feel,know,presume,report,say,suppose,understand等.

It is supposed that the ship has been sunk.

The ship is supposed to have been sunk.

担当be supposed to 与不定式的一般形式搭配时往往表示不同的意义.例如:

Why are you driving so fast in this area? You are supposed to know the speed to know the speed limit. (你应该晓得速度限制)

双宾语及宾补结构的被动语态

双宾语结构的被动语态: 双宾语结构变为被动语态时,可以把主动结构中的一个宾语变为主语,另一个宾语仍然保留在谓语后面,但多数是把间接宾语变为主语.

He was asked a number of questions at the press conference.

Two days were allowed them for making the necessary preparations.

宾补结构的被动语态:

She was called Big Sister by everybody.

Then he was made a squad leader.

He was considered quite qualified for the job.

The room was always kept clean and tidy.

短语动词

Vi + adv

The plane took off two hours late.

Vi + prep

They looked round the Cathedral.

Vi + prep (有被动语态)

She’s looking after her sister’s children.

The children were always well looked after.

Vi + adv + prep

I began to look forward to their visits.

Vt + O + adv

Some women choose to stay at home and bring up their children.

The children were brought up by their mother.

They took him on.

Vt + adv + O (无被动语态)

I am trying to give up smoking.

Vt + O + prep

We talked Donald into agreement.