Latent heat of fusion

The amount of heat necessary to transform a solid at a given temperature into a liquid of the same temperature, or the amount of heat needed to be removed from a liquid of a given temperature to transform it into a solid of the same temperature.

Latent heat of sublimation

The amount of heat necessary for a material undergoing sublimation to make a phase change from gas to solid or solid to gas, without a change in temperature.

Latent heat of transformation

The amount heat necessary to cause a substance to undergo a phase transition.

Latent heat of vaporization

The amount of heat necessary to transform a liquid at a given temperature into a gas of the same temperature, or the amount of heat needed to be taken away from a gas of a given temperature to transform it into a liquid of the same temperature.

Law of conservation of energy

Energy cannot be made or destroyed; energy can only be changed from one place to another or from one form to another.

Law of reflection

For a reflected light ray, . In other words, a ray of light reflects of a surface in the same plane as the incident ray and the normal, and at an angle to the normal that is equal to the angle between the incident ray and the normal.

Legs

The two shorter sides of a right triangle that meet at the right angle.

Lenz’s Law

States that the current induced in a circuit by a change in magnetic flux is in the direction that will oppose that change in flux. Using the right-hand rule, point your thumb in the opposite direction of the change in magnetic flux. The direction your fingers curl into a fist indicates the direction of the current.

Longitudinal waves

Waves that oscillate in the same direction as the propagation of the wave. Sound is carried by longitudinal waves, since the air molecules move back and forth in the same direction the sound travels.

Loudness

The square of the amplitude of a sound wave is called the sound’s loudness, or volume.