爱思英语编者按:据英国《每日邮报》9月9日报道,研究人员在研究著名生物学家达尔文的书信时,发现达尔文歧视女性,他曾写信称未来的妻子是“爱抚玩弄的玩物,总之比小狗强多了。”

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'A wife's a lot better than a dog': Charles Darwin's letters reveal he was a bit of a dinosaur when it came to women

In 1838, Darwin said a future wife would be an 'object to be loved & played with — better than a dog anyhow'

However, Cambridge researcher Philippa Hardman has found evidence that his attitudes towards women later changed

In 1872 he wrote to Mary Treat urging her to make sure her work on butterflies was taken seriously and published in a scientific journal

Later wrote to Lydia Becker, secretary of the National Society of Women's Suffrage, with papers discussed at a science forum

He once wrote that a future wife would be an 'object to be loved and played with - better than a dog anyhow.'

But researchers studying letters written by  evolutionary theorist Charles Darwin have discovered that his attitudes towards women later changed.

Philippa Hardman, a research associate at Cambridge University, found that Darwin went out of his way to back women's scientific work and often wrote to campaigners for women's rights.

Dr Hardman told The Times: 'Darwin was no feminist.

'But our research has shown that his views on gender were a lot more complex than has been acknowledged.

'As a published scientist, Darwin usually reflected and reinforced middle-class, Victorian gender ideology, which saw women as domestic creatures who should look after children and the home.

'In his letters, though, we encounter a world of private thoughts and actions, which defied those ideals.'

Early letters written by Darwin would certainly raise eyebrows in modern day society.

When contemplating whether to marry in 1838, Darwin noted that one advantage to doing so was that a wife would be an 'object to be loved & played with — better than a dog anyhow'.

Later in his famous work The Descent of Man, published in 1871, the scientist attacked John Stuart Mill's discourse in The Subjection of Women by writing: 'Woman seems to differ from man in her mental disposition, chiefly in her greater tenderness and less selfishness.'

However, only one year later, he wrote to naturalist Mary Treat urging her to make sure her work on butterflies was taken seriously in the science world.

In one letter, he advised her to get the work published 'in some well known scientific Journal'.

Dr Hardman's, whose work is called the Darwin Correspondence Project, also told the newspaper that Darwin's archive includes supportive letters to women who campaigned for gender equality.

Darwin held correspondence with women who went beyond traditional gender roles, writing warmly to Florence Dixie, a traveller, writer and hunter who called for votes for women.

She also published a  novel - categorised as 'fantasy' at the time, in which men and women lived as equals.

Another of Darwin's exchanges is a letter to Lydia Becker, secretary of the National Society of Women's Suffrage.

In the correspondence, Darwin makes clear that he did not endorse her views. However, he did send her scientific papers that were discussed at the Manchester Ladies' Literary Society - a forum to discuss science for women.

Dr Hardman said that Darwin may have kept his real views on gender quiet because he felt his work was controversial enough.

剑桥大学菲力帕·哈德曼博士研究发现,达尔文曾支持女人从事科学研究,并经常写信支持女性权利,但是后来达尔文改变了对女性的态度。他说:“我们的研究显示,达尔文对性别的态度比他公开承认的要复杂得多。作为一位著名科学家,达尔文经常公开强调中产阶级和维多利亚性别观,即女人应该主内,照顾家庭和孩子。但是,从他的信中,我们发现达尔文鲜为人知的思想,与他公开宣扬的立场相悖。”

1838年,达尔文考虑是否结婚时曾指出结婚的一项好处,即“能有一个爱抚玩弄的玩物做妻子,总之比小狗强多了。”

哈德曼博士表示,达尔文可能隐瞒自己对性别的真实态度,因为他本身的研究工作本来就颇具争议。