PART V READING COMPREHENSION [25 MIN]
In this section there are four passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the best answer. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET TWO.
What is the nature of the scientific attitude, the attitude of the man or woman who studies and applies physics, biology, chemistry, geology, engineering, medicine or any other science? We all know that science plays an important role in the societies in which we live. Many people believe, however, that our progress depends on two different aspects of science. The first of these is the application of the machines, products and systems of applied knowledge that scientists and technologists develop. Through technology, science improves the structure of society and helps man to gain increasing control over his environment.
The second aspect is the application by all members of society of the special methods of thought and action that scientists use in their work.
What are these special methods of thinking and acting? First of all, it seems that a successful scientist is full of curiosity - he wants to find out how and why the universe works. He usually directs his attention towards problems which he notices have no satisfactory explanation, and his curiosity makes him look for underlying relationships even if the data available seem to be unconnected. Moreover, he thinks he can improve the existing conditions and enjoys trying to solve the problems which this involves.
He is a good observer, accurate, patient and objective and applies logical thought to the observations he makes. He utilizes the facts he observes to the fullest extent. For example, trained observers obtain a very large amoun
t of information about a star mainly from the accurate analysis of the simple lines that appear in a spectrum.
He is skeptical - he does not accept statements which are not based on the most complete evidence available - and therefore rejects authority as the sole basis for truth. Scientists always check statements and make experiments carefully and objectively to verify them.
Furthermore, he is not only critical of the work of others, but also of his own, since he knows that man is the least reliable of scientific instruments and that a number of factors tend to disturb objective investigation.
Lastly, he is highly imaginative since he often has to look for relationships in data which are not only complex but also frequently incomplete. Furthermore, he needs imagination if he wants to make hypotheses of how processes work and how events take place.
These seem to be some of the ways in which a successful scientist or technologist thinks and acts.
81. Many people believe that science helps society to progress through
A. applied knowledge.
B. more than one aspect.
C. technology only.
D. the use of machines.
82. Which of the following statements is INCORRECT about curiosity?
A. It gives the scientist confidence and pleasure in work.
B. It gives rise to interest in problems that are unexplained.
C. It leads to efforts to investigate potential connections.
D. It encourages the scientist to look for new ways of acting.
83. According to the passage, a successful scientist would not
A. easily believe in unchecked statements.
B. easily criticize others' research work.
C. always use his imagination in work.
D. always use evidence from observation.
84. What does the passage mainly discuss?
A. Application of technology.
B. Progress in modem society.
C. Scientists' ways of thinking and acting.
D. How to become a successful scientist.
85. What is the author's attitude towards the topic?
Over the past several decades, the U.S., Canada, and Europe have received a great deal of media and even research attention over unusual phenomena and unsolved mysteries. These include UFOs as well as sightings and encounters with "nonhuman creatures" such as Bigfoot and the Loch Ness monster. Only recently has Latin America begun to receive some attention as well. Although the mysteries of the Aztec, Mayan, and Inca civilizations have been known for centuries, now the public is also becoming aware of unusual, paranormal phenomena in countries such as Peru.
The Nazca "lines" of Peru were discovered in the 1930s. These lines are deeply carved into a flat, stony plain, and form about 300 intricate pictures of animals such as birds, a monkey, and a lizard. Seen at ground level, the designs are a jumbled senseless mess. The images are so large that they can only be viewed at a height of 1,000 feet - meaning from an aircraft. Yet there were no aircraft in 300 B.C., when it is judged the designs were made. Nor were there then, or are there now, any nearby mountain ranges from which to view them. So how and why did the native people of Nazca create these marvelous designs? One answer appeared in 1969, when the German researcher and writer Erich von Daniken proposed that the lines were drawn by extraterrestrials as runways for their aircraft. The scientific community did not take long to scoffat and abandon von Daniken's theory. Over the years several other theories have been put forth, but none has been accepted by the scientific community.
Today there is a new and heightened interest in the Nazca lines. It is a direct result of the creation of the Internet. Currently there a
re over 60 sites dedicated to this mystery from Latin America's past, and even respected scientists have joined the discussion through e-mail and chat rooms.
Will the Internet help explain these unsolved mysteries? Perhaps it is a step in the right direction.
86. Which of the following statements is INCORRECT?
A. Latin America has long received attention for unusual phenomena.
B. Public attention is now directed towards countries like Peru.
C. Public interest usually focuses on North America and Europe.
D. Some ancient civilizations have unsolved mysteries.
87. According to the passage, the Nazca lines were found
A. in mountains.
B. in stones.
C. on animals.
D. on a plain.
88. We can infer from the passage that the higher the lines are seen, the ____ the images they present.
89. There has been increasing interest in the Nazca lines mainly because of
A. the participation of scientists.
B. the emergence of the lnternet.
C. the birth of new theories.
D. the interest in the Internet.
90. The author is ____ about the role of the lnternet in solving mysteries.
Graduation speeches are a bit like wedding toasts. A few are memorable. The rest tend to trigger such thoughts as, "Why did I wear such uncomfortable shoes?"
But graduation speeches are less about the message than the messenger. Every year a few colleges and universities in the US attract attention because they've managed to book high-profile speakers. And, every year, the media report some of these speakers' wise remarks.
Last month, the following words of wisdom were spread:
"You really haven't completed the circle of success unless you can help somebody else move forward." (Oprah Winfrey, Duke University).
"There is no way to stop change; change will come. Go out and give us a future worthy of the world we all wish to create together." (Hillary Clinton, New York University).
"'This really is your moment. History is yours to bend." (Joe Biden, Wake Forest University).
Of course, the real "get" of the graduation season was first lady Michelle Obama's appearance at the University of California, Merced. "Remember that you are blessed," she told the class of 2009, "Remember that in exchange for those blessings, you must give something back... As advocate and activist Marian Wright Edelman says, 'Service is the rent we pay for living ... it is the true measure, the only measure of success'."
Calls to service have a long, rich tradition in these speeches. However, it is possible for a graduation speech to go beyond cliche and say something truly compelling. The late writer David Foster Wallace's 2005 graduation speech at Kenyon College in Ohio talked about how to truly care about other people. It gained something of a cult after it was widely circulated on the Internet. Apple Computer CEO Steve Jobs' address at Stanford University that year, in which he talked about death, is also considered one of the best in recent memory.
But when you're sitting in the hot sun, fidgety and freaked out, do you really want to be lectured about
the big stuff?. Isn't that like trying to maintain a smile at your wedding reception while some relative gives a toast that amounts to "marriage is hard work"? You know he's right; you just don't want to think about it at that particular moment. In fact, as is the case in many major life moments, you can't really manage to think beyond the blisters your new shoes are causing.
That may seem anticlimactic. But it also gets to the heart of one of life's greatest, saddest truths: that our most "memorable" occasions may elicit the fewest memories. It's probably not something most graduation speakers would say, but it's one of the first lessons of growing up.
91. According to the passage, most graduation speeches tend to recall ____ memories.
92. "But graduation speeches are less about the message than the messenger" is explained
A. in the final paragraph.
B. in the last but one paragraph.
C. in the first paragraph.
D. in the same paragraph.
93. The graduation speeches mentioned in the passage are related to the following themes EXCEPT
94. It is implied in the passage that at great moments people fail to
A. remain clear-headed.
B. keep good manners.
C. remember others' words.
D. recollect specific details.
95. What is "one of the first lessons of growing up"?
A. Attending a graduation ceremony.
B. Listening to graduation speeches.
C. Forgetting details of memorable events.
D. Meeting high-profile graduation speakers.
Cultural rules determine every aspect of food consumption. Who eats together defines social units. For example, in some societies, the nuclear family is the unit that regularly eats together. The anthropologist Mary Douglas has pointed out that, for the English, the kind of meal and the kind of food that is served relate to the kinds of social links between people who are eating together. She distinguishes between regular meals, Sunday meals when relatives may come, and cocktail parties for acquaintances. The food served symbolizes the occasion and reflects who is present. For example, only snacks are served at a cocktail party. It would be inappropriate to serve a steak or hamburgers. The distinctions among cocktails, regular meals, and special dinners mark the social boundaries between those guests who are invited for drinks, those who are invited to dinner, and those who come to a family meal. In this example, the type of food symbolizes the category of guest and with whom it is eaten.
In some New Guinea societies, the nuclear family is not the unit that eats together. The men take their meals in a men's house, separately from their wives and children. Women prepare and eat their food in their own houses and take the husband's portion to the men's house. The women eat with their children in their own houses. This pattern is also widespread among Near Eastern societies.
Eating is a metaphor that is sometimes used to signify marriage. In many New Guinea societies, like that of the Lesu on the island of New Ireland in the Pacific and that of the Trobriand Islanders, marriage is symbolized by the couple's eating together for the first time. Eating symbolizes their new status as a married couple. In U.S. society, it is just the reverse. A couple may go out to dinner on a first date.
Other cultural rules have to do with taboos against eating certain things. In some societies, members of a clan, a type of kin (family) group, are not allowed to eat the animal or bird that is their totemic ancestor. Since they believe themselves to be descended from that ancestor, it would be like eating that ancestor or eating themselves.
There is also an association between food prohibitions and rank, which is found in its most extreme form in the caste system of India. A caste system consists of ranked groups, each with a different economic specialization. In India, there is an association between caste and the idea of pollution. Members of highly ranked groups can be polluted by coming into contact with the bodily secretions, particularly saliva, of individuals of lower-ranked castes. Because of the fear of pollution, Brahmans and other high-ranked individuals will not share food with, no
96. According to the passage, the English make clear distinctions between
A. people who eat together.
B. the kinds of food served.
C. snacks and hamburgers.
D. family members and guests.
97. According to the passage, who will NOT eat together?
A. The English.
B. Americans on their first date.
C. Men and women in Near Eastern societies.
D. Newly-weds on the island of New Ireland.
98. According to the passage, eating together indicates all the following EXCEPT
A. the type of food.
B. social relations.
C. marital status.
D. family ties.
99. The last paragraph suggests that in India ____ decides how people eat.
D. social status
100. Which of the following can best serve as the topic of the passage?
A. Different kinds of food in the world.
B. Relations between food and social units.
C. Symbolic meanings of food consumption.
D. Culture and manners of eating.
PART VI WRITING [45 MIN]
SECTION A COMPOSITION [35 MIN]
It was recently reported in a newspaper that six students who shared a dorm at a local
university hired a cleaner to do laundry and cleaning once a week. And each of them paid her 60
yuan a month. This has led to a heated debate as to whether college students should hire cleaners.
Write on ANSWER SHEET THREE a composition of about 200 words on the following
Should College Students Hire Cleaners?
You are to write in three parts.
In the first part, state clearly what your view is.
In the second part, support your view with appropriate reasons.
In the last part, bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or a summary.
Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to
follow the instructions may result in a loss of marks.
SECTION B NOTE-WRITING [10 MIN]
Write on ANSWER SHEET THREE a note of about 50-60 words based on the following
Your good friend, John, is thinking of organizing an end-of-the-term party. Write him a note telling him that you like his idea and offer to help him. You have to be specific about how you can help him. Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness.