1. President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner rushed onto national television to praise the discovery as something that could give new impetus to the country’s long-stagnant economy.
该句的难点在于praise the discovery as something that …采用拆分法来翻译,就可以使句子读起来非常通顺,否则会译得非常啰嗦。

2. Although there are significant hurdles, geologists say that the Vaca Muerta is a harbinger of a possible major expansion of global petroleum supplies over the next two decades as the industry uses advanced techniques to extract oil from shale and other tightly packed rocks.
虽然存在一些重大的开发障碍,但地质学家们认为, 随着石油行业使用先进的技术从页岩和其他密集的岩石中不断提取石油,瓦卡姆尔塔油田预示着一个在未来20年内全球石油供应规模主要扩大的可能性。
此句中the Vaca Muerta is a harbinger of的“harbinger”是名词,但需要转换词性才能将该句译得通顺。

3. Some experts caution that the fast advance of oil production from shale in the United States is no guarantee of similar successes abroad, at least not in the near future.
一些专家警告说, 在美国快速推进的页岩石油生产也不能保证在国外出现类似的成功案例,至少在不久的将来不会出现。
该句中is no guarantee of也同样要求使用词性转换译法来翻译。

4. 尊重文明多样性,在交流互鉴、取长补短中相得益彰、共同进步。
And we should respect the diversity of civilizations and pursue common progress through mutual learning and drawing on each other's strength.
该句中“取长补短”的译法是一个要点,汉语中很多表达法习惯与正反同步式,而英语中的表达习惯是或正,或反式,因此,翻译该成语切勿译成:draw on each other’s strength and make up each other’s weakness。我们在培训中强调的成语译法,如:有增无减 be on the constant increase,而不能译成:increase without decrease。

5. 和平稳定是发展的前提和基础。
Peace and stability form the prerequisite and foundation for development. /Peace and stability serve as the prerequisite and bedrock of development.

6. 上个世纪,人类经历了两次世界大战,生灵涂炭,经济社会发展遭受严重挫折。
Last century witnessed two world wars during which man suffered untold miseries and the world economic and social development underwent severe setbacks.

7. 我们应该坚持国家不论大小、强弱、贫富都是国际社会平等一员,以民主、包容、合作、共赢的精神实现共同安全
All countries, big or small, strong or weak, rich or poor, are equal members of the international community. We should work for common security in a spirit of democracy, inclusiveness, cooperation and win-win progress.
该句与第一篇二级笔译的英译汉文中的一个句式结构相似:“不论大小,强弱,贫富”,可以按照让步状语从句的特色句式译成:All countries, be they large or small, weak or strong, rich or poor, should enjoy equal footing in the international community. 我们在汉译英的讲解中曾经练习过类似的句子:大自然对人的恩赐,无论贫富,一律平等。Equal are the generous gifts blessed by nature to all human individuals, be they rich or poor.