In the case of mobile phones, change is everything. Recent research indicates that the mobile phone is changing not only our culture, but our very bodies as well.

First. Let's talk about culture. The difference between the mobile phone and its parent, the fixed-line phone, you get whoever answers it.

This has several implications. The most common one, however, and perhaps the thing that has changed our culture forever, is the "meeting" influence. People no longer need to make firm plans about when and where to meet. Twenty years ago, a Friday night would need to be arranged in advance. You needed enough time to allow everyone to get from their place of work to the first meeting place. Now, however, a night out can be arranged on the run. It is no longer "see you there at 8", but "text me around 8 and we'll see where we all are".

Texting changes people as well. In their paper, "insights into the Social and Psychological Effects of SMS Text Messaging", two British researchers distinguished between two types of mobile phone users: the "talkers" and the "texters"-those who prefer voice to text message and those who prefer text to voice.

They found that the mobile phone's individuality and privacy gave texters the ability to express a whole new outer personality. Texters were likely to report that their family would be surprised if they were to read their texts. This suggests that texting allowed texters to present a self-image that differed from the one familiar to those who knew them well.

Another scientist wrote of the changes that mobiles have brought to body language. There are two kinds that people use while speaking on the phone. There is the "speakeasy": the head is held high, in a self-confident way, chatting away. And there is the "spacemaker": these people focus on themselves and keep out other people.

Who can blame them? Phone meetings get cancelled or reformed and camera-phones intrude on people's privacy. So, it is understandable if your mobile makes you nervous. But perhaps you needn't worry so much. After all, it is good to talk.

81 when people plan to meet nowadays, they

A: arrange the meeting place beforehand

B. postpone fixing the place till last minute

C: seldom care about when and where to meet

D: still love to work out detailed meeting plans.

82 According to the two British researchers, the social and psychological effect are mostly likely to be seen on


B; the "speakeasy"

c. the "spacemaker"

D. texters

83 We can infer from the passage that the texts sent by texters are

A: quite revealing

B: well written

c: unacceptable by others

d; shocking to others

84 according to the passage ,who is afraid of being heard while talking on the mobile

a: talkers

b: the speakeasy

c :the spacemaker

d: texters

85 an appropriate title for the passage might be

A: the SMS effect

b: cultural implication of mobile use

c: change in the use of the mobile

d: body language and the mobile phone!


Over the last 25 years, British society has changed a great deal-or at least many parts of it have. In some ways, however, very little has changed, particularly where attitudes are concerned. Ideas about social class-whether a person is "working-class" or "middle-class"

-are one area in which changes have been extremely slow.

In the past, the working-class tended to be paid less than middle-class people, such as teachers and doctors. As a result of this and also of the fact that workers' jobs were generally much less secure, distinct differences in life-styles and attitudes came into existence. The typical working man would collect his wages on Friday evening and then, it was widely believed, having given his wife her "housekeeping", would go out and squander the rest on beer and betting.

The stereotype of what a middle-class man did with his money was perhaps nearer the truth. He was-and still is - inclined to take a longer-term view. Not only did he regard buying a house of these provided him and his family with security. Only in very few cases did workers have the opportunity (or the education and training) to make such long-term plans.

Nowadays, a great deal has changed. In a large number of cases factory workers earn as much, if not more, than their middle-class supervisors. Social security and laws to improve century, have made it less necessary than before to worry about "tomorrow". Working-class people seem slowly to be losing the feeling of inferiority they had in the past. In fact there has been a growing tendency in the past few years for the middle-classes to feel slightly ashamed of their position.

The changes in both life-styles and attitudes are probably most easily seen amongst younger people. They generally tend to share very similar tastes in music and clothes, they spend their money in having a good time, and save for holidays or longer-term plans when necessary. There seems to be much less difference than in precious generations. Nevertheless, we still have a wide gap between the well-paid (whatever the type of job they may have) and the low-paid. As long as this gap exists, there will always be a possibility that new conflicts and jealousies will emerge, or rather that the old conflicts will re-appear, but between different groups.

86 which of the following is seen as the cause of class differences in the past?

A: life style and occupation

B: Attitude and income

C: income and job security

D: job security and hobbies

87 the writer seems to suggest that the description of —— is closer to truth?

A: middle -class ways of spending money

B: working-class ways of spending the weekend

C: working-class drinking habits

D: middle-class attitudes

88 according to the passage, which of the following is not a typical feature of the middle -class?

A: desiring for security

B: Making long term plans

C: having priorities in life

D: saving money

89 working -class people's sense of security increased as a resulf of all the follwoing factor except?

A: better social security

B: more job opportunities

C: higher living standard

D: better legal protection.

90 Which of the following statement is incorrect?

A: Changes are slowly taking place in all sectors of the British society.

B: The gap between working -class and middle- class young people is narrowing

C: different in income will remain but those in occupation will disappear

D: middle-class people may sometimes feel inferior to working-class people