What We Know About Language?

Many things about language are a mystery and will remain so. However, we now do know something about it. First, we know that all human beings have a language of some sort. No human race anywhere on earth is so backward that it has no language of its own at all. Second , there is no such thing as a primitive language. There are many people whose cultures are undeveloped but the languages they speak are by no means primitive. In all the languages existing in the world today, there are complexities that must have been developed for years. Third, we know that all languages are perfectly adequate. Each is a perfect means of expressing its culture. And finally, we know that language changes over time, which is natural and normal if a language is to survive. The language which remains unchanged is nothing but dead.?


1. Harry's brother would not remain an engine driver if he were ambitious.?
2. Would you mind waiting a few minutes? Ms Ellis is being examined by her physician at this moment.?
3. Joan is in hospital. I'd like to send her a handbag she can use later in the law office, where she is employed.?
4. Mary and I work in the same office. We are on five days and off two days in a week. Every time I see her, she is wearing a different silk scarf.?
5. We'll come aboard Southeast Service to Red Hill, East Corydon and Victoria, with changes in Red Hill for Gilford.?
6. What we need here is a clerk who is careful and CONSIDERATE. Let's write that in the ad: carefulness and consideration are a must.?
7. I used to think Emily was honest and trust-worthy, but now I know better. ?
8. The first train to Green Hill leaves at 6:28. There is a train every hour on the hour and every 28 minutes PAST the hour. ?
9. The trouble is no matter how hard he tried, Malcolm didn't seem to get anywhere.?


10. M:What do you think? Am I OK??
W: Well, there is some information that seems to me ... I want to have a thorough checkup and do some tests. ?

11. M: It's hot! I wish it would rain and cool off!?
W: This isn't usual for November. I don't remember it ever being so hot and dry in November before. ?

12. M: Many people prefer taking public buses or the subway or even taxis because parking is getting to be a real headache in some parts of the city.?
W: That doesn't surprise me.?

13. M: Hello, Good morning, I'm calling to check on the status of my computer.?
W: Well, the new parts have just been coming in,so it should be ready by Friday.?

14. M: My goodness, the service in this restaurant is really terrible, a lot worse than before.?
W: Right. It's high time they got rid of half the staff here if you ask me.?

15. M: Operator, I booked a long-distance collect call for my sister in Switzerland 25 minutes ago, but I haven't got a reply yet.?
W: Sorry, I ring it for you right now.?

16. W: I'll wear this blue jacket. I like the color on me, don't you think??
M: I think it looks terrific on you,really.?

17. M: How did Mr. Hunt's project turn out? I heard he had trouble with the financing, but then he could get the loan he wanted.?
W: It's true. He did have difficulties at first. But all in all, the project couldn't have turned out better.?


News Item One (18)?

NATO and Russia are reporting some progress in efforts to finalize a charter governing their post-cold-war relationship. But they stressed more work must be done to settle their differences in military and political issues. A fifth round of talks between the Russian foreign minister and NATO Secretary General ended Tuesday in Luxembourg.?

News Item Two (19-20)?

A Boeing 727 aircraft with 51 passengers and 10 crew on board has crashed into a mountain side just outside the Columbia capital, Bogota. Police and rescue workers said everyone was killed when the plane exploded scattering wreckage over a wide area. The crash happened shortly after take-off when the plane was unable to gain enough height to clear the mountains. The aircraft belonged to Ecuadorian Airline, but it had been chartered by Air-France for the route from Bogota to Ecuadorian Capital, Quito.?

News Item Three (21-22)?

The US has designated thirty international groups as terrorist organizations, barring them from receiving money, weapons or other support from US citizens. The new terrorist list includes a Palestinian group Hamas, the Pro-Iranian Hezbollah, Cambodian's Khmer Rouge, the Basque separatist group ETA, Sri Lanka's Tamitigers, and Peru-based Shining Path and Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement. The list does not include the Irish Republican Army or the Palestinian Liberation Organization. US Secretary of State Maddine Albright says the affected groups will have their US visas revoked and US financial assets frozen.?

News Item Four (23)?

Israeli prosecutors are reviewing charges against Prime Minister, Benjamin Netanyahu, after Israeli police called off his indictment. Justice Ministry officials say they hope a decision on whether to bring charges against the Israeli leader will be announced Sunday. The case stems from the appointment of Runny Barong as Israeli attorney general. Critics charged the appointment was part of a conspiracy to end the trial of Netanyahu's political ally.?

News Item Five (24-25)?

The combined left-wing opposition in France has defeated President Jaque Chirac's ruling conservative coalition in the first round of the country's parliamentary elections. Projections by French TV give the Socialist-led opposition 40% of the vote and Mr. Chirac's center-right coalition 37%. If the left secures the majority of seats in parliament, Socialist leader Leono Jospin would likely became prime minister in the power-sharing arrangement with President Chirac.