During McDonald's early years French fries were made from scratch every day. Russet Burbank potatoes were (1), cut into shoestrings, and fried in its kitchens.  (2) the chain expanded nationwide, in the mid-1960', it sought to cut labor costs, reduce the number of suppliers, and (3) that its fries tasted the same at every restaurant. McDonald's began (4) to frozen French fries in 1966--and few customers noticed the difference.  (5), the change had a profound effect on the nation's agriculture and diet. A familiar food had been transformed into a highly processed industrial (6) McDonald's fries now come from huge manufacturing plants (7) can process two million pounds of potatoes a day. The expansion (8) McDonald's and the popularity of its low-cost, mass-produced fries changed the way Americans eat.

The taste of McDonald's French fries played a crucial role in the chain's success--fries are much more profitable than hamburgers--and was (9) praised by customers, competitors, and even food critics.  Their (10) taste does not stem from the kind of potatoes that McDonald's (11) , the technology that processes them, or the restaurant equipment that fries them: other chains use Russet Burbank, buy their French fries from the (12) large processing companies, and have similar (13) in their restaurant kitchens. The taste of a French fry is (14) determined by the cooking oil. For decades McDonald's cooked its French fries in a mixture of about 7 per cent cottonseed oiled and 93 per cent beef fat. The mixture gave the fries their unique (15).

1. A. scaled B. stripped C. peeled D. sliced

2. A. As B. Due to C. owing to D. With

3. A. ensue B. ensure C. enrich D. enable

4. A. switching B. perting C. modifying D. altering

5. A. Still B. Anyway C. Besides D. Nevertheless

6. A. brand B. stuff C. commodity D. produce

7. A. this B. that C. / D. what

8. A. into B. from C. in D. of

9. A. long B. only C. first D. lonely

10. A. distinctive B. distinct C. distinguished D. distinguishable

11. A. possesses B. buys C. acquires D. grows

12. A. exact B. identical C. same D. alike

13. A. works B. pots C. boilers D. fryers

14. A. adequately B. massively C. plentifully D. largely

15. A. flavor B. fragrance C. smell D. perfume