Two American economists have won this year's Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics for their work in designing market institutions that match different parties within the market as efficiently as possible.

两名美国学者获得了今年的诺贝尔经济学奖。他们设计了能够有效满足市场各方利益的市场机构。

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm said Monday it awarded the prize to Alvin Roth, an economics professor at Harvard University, and Lloyd Shapley, a professor at the University of California, Los Angeles [UCLA].

瑞典皇家科学院星期一宣布,把今年的经济学奖授予美国哈佛大学经济学教授艾尔文.罗斯和加州大学洛杉矶分校教授劳伊德.夏普雷。

美国哈佛大学经济学教授艾尔文.罗斯(左)教授劳伊德.夏普雷(右) (瑞典皇家科学院10月15日公布的照片)
美国哈佛大学经济学教授艾尔文.罗斯(左)教授劳伊德.夏普雷(右) (瑞典皇家科学院10月15日公布的照片)

The 89-year-old Shapley conducted early theoretical studies of matching methods in the 1950s and 1960s. He developed a formula of how 10 men and 10 women could be coupled so that no two of them would prefer each other over their current partners.

More recently, in the 1990s, the academy said the 60-year-old Roth used Shapley's research to redesign existing instructions for matching new doctors with hospitals, students with schools, and organ donors with patients.

It said the two Americans, who work independently of one another, will share the $1.2 million prize for an "outstanding example of economic engineering."

皇家科学院说,这两位各自进行研究的美国人将因为他们对经济工程学的杰出贡献而分享120万美元的奖金。

The economics prize was not part of the original group of awards established in the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, also known for inventing dynamite. The Swedish central bank created the annual prize in 1968 in Nobel's memory.

根据瑞典工业家阿尔弗雷德.诺贝尔的遗嘱设立的奖项中本来没有经济学奖。瑞典中央银行为了纪念诺贝尔在1968年设立了这个奖项。

​​The 2012 Nobel Peace Prize - and those in medicine, physics, chemistry and literature - were announced last week. All awards will be handed out on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death in 1896.