Chapter 18 The U.S. Economy美国经济
1)Factors that contribute to the fast growth of the economy: ①the geographical location of the United States povides very good conditions for the country to grow and become strong. ②the United States has been blessed by being a land rich in mineral resources and fertile farm soil, together with a moderate climate. ③America has been fortunate in having enough people to provide the labour necessary for a constantly expanding economy. ④ the quality of available labour. The United States has a skilful and willing labour force.
2)Characteristics of the U.S. economy: characterised by a high degree of monopoly.
3)the importance of foreign trade:the United States supplies a larger share of the imports of all other countries than does any other country in the world. But the U.S. share of the world trade has declined in recent years.①Currently US exports are about 15% of the world’s total;②the US imports about 13% of all world imports; ③ Canada is the largest single source of goods imported by the U.S., accounting for nearly 30% of the total. Asia provides about 18% of American imports. Thus the economy of these countries is often affected when the U.S. economy is in trouble.
4)problems facing the US economy: unemployment, inflation, financial deficit, and trade deficit.
Chapter 19.Political Institution政治体制
1)A workable form of government under the Constitution: a federal system of government which has two layers of rule. 两极统治的联邦政府体制
2)Separation of powers with checks and balances under the Constitution: The Constitution divides the government into three branches: the legislative, the executive and the judicial. Each branch has only part of the powers but not all the powers. The three branches are in balance and they may check each other.
3) Safeguards for individual liberty under the Constitution: the Bill of Rights. It is the term used for the first ten amendments to the Constitution. Ti guarantees freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly and petition, freedom from unreasonable searches, right to jury trial, right to due process of law and other legal rights.
4)Powers of the American president: ①The president is the head of the executive branch（行政部门首脑）. ②He is also head of state(元首) elected by the whol nation. ③he has some legislative powers(立法权); ④he is responsible for the relations of the United States with foreign nations; ⑤ he signs Bills passed by Congress into law.⑥ he appoints fedeal officials;⑦he has some judicial powers;⑧commander-in-chief(总司令)⑨he can serve for no more than 2 term任 期不超过2届。总统权利：总统是行政部门首脑；2.国家元首；3.立法权；4.负责美国与其他国家的关系；5.6.委任政府官员；7.司法权利；8.总司令；9. 任期不超过2届。
5）Powers of the House of Representatives: the House of Representatives can ①introduce legislation, ②revenue bills and ③bring charges against officials, including the President. 众议院权利：1.立法；2.征税法案3.指控官员，包括总统。
6)Powers of the Senate: the Senate has the power to ①introduced legislation on any subject except revenue bills (除了税收法案). It has the authority to ②confirm or reject predidential appointments(总统任命) of high officials as well as the U.S. foreign treaties. ③Its chairman is the Vice President.参议院权利：1立法除税收。还有一些特殊权利：2批准或否决总统任命的高级官员及外交条约；3.领导人是副总统。
7)The judicial system has evolved into the present structure: According to the Constitution, the judicial power of the U.S shall be vested in one Supreme Court. The judicial system has evolved into the present structure: the Supreme Court, 11 court of appeals, 91 district courts, and 3 courts of special jurisdiction. U.S.judges are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate.根据宪法规定，美国的司法权属于最高法院，司法体系结构为：最高法院，11个上诉法院，91个地方法院，3个有特殊司法权的法院，美国的法官是由总统任命并由参议院批准的。
8)The two-party system and the characteristics of the two major parties
①the two-party system:the two party system means that the two major political parties – now the Democrats and the Republicans – compete with each other to dominate politics at the federal, state, and local levels.两党制意味着两个主要的政党—目前为民主党和共和党—支配着联邦、州及地方的政治舞台。
②the characteristics of the two major parties:The two major parties are not very different today. They are two coalitions of interests and interest groups(利益集团的联合). There is no strict party discipline(党纪). One does not have to apply or go through necessary formalities to become a member of either party. But there are some differences between them. The Democrats traditionally favour government intervention (主张政府干涉经济)while the Republicans stress the role of the market (市场作用)more. On social issue the Democrats support a strong social security system (社会安全保障体制) while the Republicans oppose large governmental social security programs. In spite of these differenes, the two parties both believe in individualism, defend capitalism and uphold private ownership of means of production(坚持生产资料私有制) .两个主要政党今天并没有实质区别。他们是利益集团的联合。没有严格的党纪。要想成为某党成员，不需要申请或办理必要的手续。但他们有所不同。民主党主张政府干涉，共和党则强调市场作用。在社会问题上，民主党支持建立强大的社会保障体系，而共和党反对大规模的政府社会保障计划。尽管存在这些区别，两党都信仰个人主义，保护资本主义制度，维护生产资料私有制。
Chapter 20. Education
1)Characteristics of American education:
① formal education in the US consistes of elementary, secondary and higher education.②Elementary and secondary education,which forms public education, is free and compulsory③public and private schools:Public schools are created, financially supported and governed by states or communities, and private ones by religious groups, or nonreligious private organizations or individuals.④the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution said education was included among the responsibilities which were “reserved to the states or the people”, This makes it clear that education is a function of the state, not the federal government.⑤diversity and sameness in educational policy and practice. 1.正式教育包括初等、中等、高等教育2.构成公共教育的初、中等教育是免费和义务的；3.公立和私立学校：公立学校由州或社区创建、资助和管理，私立由宗教团体、或非宗教性质的个人或组织来创建；4.《宪法第十修正案》把教育包括在‘只属于州和人民’的职责中，这清晰表明教育是州的职能，并非联邦政府的；5.教育政策和教学实践的多样性和类同性
2）Elementary and secondary educationin the US
Elementary schools: In some states the elementary school covers grades 1-8, but in some other states it covers grades 1-5 or 6. so it takes 5,6or 8 years to finish the elementary school in the United Stetes. The elementary school curriculum(课程) mainly consists of mastery of the “basics”(基础课) ， such as reading, writing, and arithmetic or mathematics.一些州小学包括1-8年级，但另一些是1-5或6年级。所以在美国小学要花5，6或8年完成。小学的课程重要包括‘基本知识’的掌握，比如阅读，写作，和算术或数学。
Secondary Schools: Secondary schools are also called high schools in the United Stetes, covering grades 9-12,the junior high school 6or 7-9,and the high school 10-12. High schools are made up of comprehensive, academic, vocational and technical schools with somewhat different tasks. There are 21000 public secondary schools and a number of private secondary schools in the US.中学包括9-12年级或初中6或7到9，高中10-12。中学包括不同教学任务的综合性学校，普通文化课学校和职业和技术学校。共有21000所公立中学和一些私立中学。
3)Different types of colleges and universities:
①賊~ research universities②doctoral universities ③master’s comprehensive colleges and universities.④Liberal arts colleges ⑤junior colleges ⑥specialized institutions.
Famous universities:Harvard,Yale,Princeton,Columbia and MIT（Massachusetts Institute of Technology）,Stanford,Berkeley.
4)the admission system in US univerisities: The general standards for admission include successl completion of high school(高中毕业), high school grade point average(GPA)( 高中年纪平均积分点成绩) and class rank (在班级名次),results from standardized tests such as the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SIA)(学生技能测试) and American College Testing Program’s
(美国大学考试计划) examination. But some universities practise open admission(敞开招生): they admit all high school graduates and all residents of the state(州内所有居民) 。大学的入学体系：入学的普遍标准包括中学的顺利毕业，GPA，班级名次，标准化测验的成绩就像SAT和ACTP。但是一些大学也实行开放式入学：他们允许所有中学毕业生或所有本州的所有居民。
5）The role of the community college:①they prepare students for transferring to a BA program at a four-year institution. ②they provide vocational training;③they give remedial instruction(补习课) to students. ④they offer recreational, cultural activities for adults. ⑤they absorb students in a four-year program who are not qualified into a lower-status vocational program.
5) Adult education
some colleges and universities offer “continuing education” program of associate degrees, graduate studies or professional development.under such system,a worker may continue his study even on a part-time basis.
6)Education reform in the 1980s and early 1990s.教育改革
① “a Nation At Risk ”report in 1983 put forward five proposals(P.328) to improve American education;the education reforms had two focuses: the raising of the standards of teaching and learning; the restructuring of the schools.1983年，一篇名为〈处于危机中的国家〉的报道，提出了5条建议改善美国的教育；教育改革有两个重点：提高教学水平，调整学校结构。
②in 1991,President Bush issued his plan “America 2000: An Education Strategy”. It set six goals(P.330) and put forward a series of proposals to help carry out some of the goals.
Chapter 21. Literature,Architecture and Music 文学，建筑和音乐
1)Major American Writers and their works
①Bejamin Franklin(1706-1790)本杰明.富兰克林: the only writer in the colonial period. Works: Poor Richard’S Almanac, which is an annual collection of proverbs.殖民地时期的作家。作品：《穷理查年鉴》，一本年度谚语集。
②Washington Irving(1803-1882) 华盛顿 欧文: A History of New Youk纽约外史; The Sketch Book最著名的作品为《见闻札记》，his most famous book, contians “Rip Van Winkle”《瑞普.凡.温克尔》and “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow”《睡谷的传说》
③Ralph Waldo Emerson(1803-1882) 爱默生：the leader of the movement of transcendentalism.超验 主义运动的领导者Works:Nature,（论自然） Self-reliance（论自助）, Representative Men（代表人物）, English Traits and Poems (英国人的性格和诗).
④Nathaniel Hawthorne(1804-1864) 霍桑：The Scarlet Letter红字
⑤Mark Twain1835-1910）马克吐温: The Celebrated Jumping Frog(《著名的跳蛙》，成名之作) ；The Adventures of Tom Sawyer(a boy book)汤姆.索亚历险记; The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn(his master work)哈克贝
利.芬历险记，则是他最杰出著作; Atramp Abroad浪迹海外, Life on the Mississippi密西西比河上, The Golded Age 镀金时代and Innocents Abroad异乡奇遇。
⑥Walt Whitman(1819-1892) 沃尔特. 惠特曼: the first to explore fully the possibilities of free verse（探索自由诗体可能性的第一人）. Leaves of Grass(his masterpiece)草叶集,
Emily Dickinson(1830-1886) 艾米丽. 狄更生:Death was one of the great themes of her work死亡是她作品的重要主题之一
⑦Theordor Dreiser(1871-1945)西奥多.德莱塞: the representative of naturalists in whose works reported truthfully and objectively the life in the slums.自然主义代表，在他们的作品里对贫民窟的生活进行了真实而客观的报道。 Works:Trilogy of Desire(欲望三部曲); An American Tragedy(美国的悲剧—被公认为最佳作品，which is considered to be his best)
⑧T.S Eliot(1888-1965);won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1946
⑨Emest hemingway(1899-1967)海明威; was awarded the Nobel Prize 诺贝尔文学奖for literature in 1954. A Farewell to Arms永别了，武器; For Whom the Bell Tolls(the two about the first and second world war); 丧钟为谁而鸣（关于一、二战的2篇小说）Old Man and the Sea(his representative book)老人与海（代表作）.
2)Harlem Renaissance(哈莱姆复兴) and black writing in American literature:
In the 1920s, Black Litrature developed into an upsurge which has come to be known as the Harlem Renaissace.20世纪20年代， 黑人文学蓬勃发展，后来被称为‘哈莱姆复兴’。Langston Hughes(1899-1967) 休斯 (masterpiece: The Weary Blues困倦的BLUES) and Richard Wright(1908-1960) 赖特（masterpiece: Native Son土生子） were the major figures of those Black writers.