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专家支招:英汉同声传译的技巧[2]
 
三、状语的处理方法
 
英语状语的位置比较灵活,既有前置状语,也有后置状语。前置状语正好与汉语中状语的位置相对应,故翻译中不存在过多困难。而后置状语笔译中一般改为汉语的前置状语。基于同传中不可能大幅度调整语序这一基本前提,我们在同传中也不可能将所有的状语全部改为前置状语。幸运的是汉语对后置状语的接受能力已经产生很大变化,大量的欧化句式开始出现,将“因为”、“尽管”等状语从句后置的现象屡见不鲜,这为同传提供了极大的便利。尽管如此,掌握一定的技巧还是十分必要的。下面是英语状语常见的处理方法:
 
1、译为欧化句式
 
(1)Frankly, ideas and goods will travel around the globe with or without our help.坦率地讲,思想和商品将会在全球流通,不管有没有我们的帮助。
 
(2)People of the same trade seldom meet together even for merriment and diversion, but the conversation ends in a conspiracy against the public or some contrivance to raise price. 同行很少相聚,哪怕是为了娱乐和消遣。可是一旦相聚,结果总是阴谋对付百姓,或想方设法提价。
 
(3)People who for years have been denied their pasts, have began searching for their own identities, often through peaceful and constructive means, occasionally through factionalism and blood shed. 多年来,有些民族的历史被否定,但他们现在已经开始寻找自我,通常以和平和建设性方式,偶尔也诉诸宗派主义和流血。
 
(4)The American people were shocked by these events. We were greatly surprised to learn of our diminished economic and military strength; we were demoralized by the treatment of our hostages in Iran; and we were outraged by the harsh attacks on the United States in the United Nations.美国人民对这些事件感到震惊。我们感到十分惊奇,因为我们得知自己的经济、军事力量在缩小;我们士气低沉,因为我们的人质在伊朗受到如此的待遇;我们义愤填膺,因为我们在联合国遭受大肆攻击。(by短语较短时可以逆向翻译,如第一句)
 
如果汉语中将本应前置的原因、条件、让步状语从句等后置,语调一般应比较低。
 
2、重复被修饰部分(与定语类似)
 
(5)Everyone was optimistic, because everything had changed----it appeared for the better----since I first attended a session of the General Assembly at the height of the cold war back in the 1950s.人人都感到乐观,因为一切都发生了变化──似乎变好了──自从我第一次参加联大、在冷战高峰期50年代参加联大以来,一切都变了。
 
(6)We were all affected, positively and negatively, by developments beyond our borders.我们都受到了影响,或积极影响或消极影响,都受到了边界之外事态发展的影响。
 
3、借用书面语句式
 
(7)In the changing world today, with problems increasing both in number and in dimension, human society in general ----and small countries in particular----are placing special hope on the United Nations.在不断变化的当今世界上,各种问题在数量和范围上都在增加,整个人类社会,尤其是小国,特别寄希望于联合国。
 
4、独立成句
 
(8) Special Economic Zones could become instrumental in stimulating such centers of excellence through favorable policies that would attract them to the Zones.经济特区可以帮助创立这样的龙头地区,办法是通过优惠政策,将它们吸引到特区来。
 
(9) It has been 16 years since I first stayed in this district of Beijing on my first visit when I stayed at the friendship hotel. 十六年前,我第一次来到北京这个地区,那是我初次访华,当时住在友谊宾馆。
 
5、追加
 
(10) Since China has already undertaken the wise decision to invest the equivalent of one trillion US dollars into the infrastructural development of especially the inner regions during the next three years as a key component to overcome unemployment… 因为中国已经明智地决定投资一万亿美圆兴建基础设施、特别是内地的基础设施──在未来三年中──作为克服失业的重要手段……
 
句末出现的时间状语往往很难加进去,可以用较低的声调追加出来,如果不重要或为大家熟知的事实,则可略去不译。
 
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四、特殊句式的处理方法
 
我们以上按句子成分将同传的技巧作了大致归类,不一定合理,目的是通过具体的例子让大家对同传有一个基本了解。因为同传过程十分复杂,在背景、词汇熟练的情况下,还受个人的反应能力、分神的能力、记忆能力等因素的影响,同样的情景,各人都有不同的处理方法,但只要能够将基本意思传达出来,都是可以接受的。
 
另外有一些常见的句式,同传时有些简便的处理方法,我觉得不易归入以上类别,暂且罗列如下,供大家参考。
 
(1)We must also improve our capacity to act, to respond firmly and positively to events before they deteriorate into crises.我们应当改善行动能力以便坚决有效地对各种事件作出反应,防止其恶化成危机。
 
(2)We will consider the recommendations before we make amendments.我们先审议提案,然后再作修正。
 
(3)The decision was taken only after the most serious consideration and careful weighing of the implications.作出这一决定之前,我们极为严肃地考虑并慎重地权衡了利弊。
 
(4)Today many countries find themselves fighting internal wars as desperate and real as the traditional wars between nation states.今天,很多国家都在打内战,其疯狂与真实程度不亚于传统的民族国家之间的战争。
 
(5) No nation or group of nations can gain by pushing its claims beyond the limits that sustain world economic growth. 任何国家或国家集团要想获益,它的索求都不能超出维持世界经济增长的极限。(反话正译) 
 
(6) Can we then tolerate such a blatant challenge for any extended period of time, especially in a region which is so highly sensitive, where the expectations for security and stability call for special consideration?我们决不能容忍这种公然挑战,不管它时间有多长,特别是在这样高度敏感的地区,那里人们对安全和稳定的期望要求我们给予特别关注。(为了简便,反问句可以译为陈述句;状语for…扩展成句后置;后置定语which…较短,改为前置;状语从句where…独立成句)
 
(7) It is still early enough to reexamine our experience with the United Nations.现在还来得及重新审查一下我们与联合国打交道的经验。(其它类似的句型如It is true that…不错,的确,诚然;It is wrong that…不应该;It is right that…应该;It is time that…现在应当;等)
 
(8) It will do so at a time when hopes for, and expectations of, the United Nations have never been greater.它这样做的时候,正值人们对联合国的希望和期望达到最高之际
 
(9)That is the alternative to a catastrophic and unpredictable military confrontation in an inflammable region of the world.这样才能避免一场灾难性的、不堪设想的军事冲突在这个易燃战火的地区发生。
 
(10)First there is the question of the amount of time at our disposal.首先是我们有多少时间可以支配。(抽象变为具体)