以–ly 结尾的形容词词

许多人认为以 –ly 结尾的词一定是副词,但事实上并不一定。英语中有些以 –ly 结尾的词却是形容词(或至少它可以用作形容词)。这主要有以下几类:

第一类

在friend, brother, woman等词后加上后缀-ly,通常是形容词,而不是副词,其意义为“具有那种本性或本质的”,这类词常见的有:beastly, brotherly, cowardly, earthly, fatherly, friendly, unfriendly, gentlemanly, heavenly, leisurely, manly, masterly, motherly, princely, queenly, kingly, lovely, scholarly, sisterly, womanly等。 如:

What beastly weather! 多么恶劣的天气!

Susan is a friendly girl. 苏珊是一个很友好的女孩。

It is cowardly of you not to admit your mistake. 你不承认错误就不是好样儿的。

He has a very brotherly manner towards the little boys. 他像哥哥一样对待那些小男孩。

No earthly sovereign can do what he pleases. 没有一个世间君王可以为所欲为。

Let me give you a little fatherly advice. 让我谨向你提些慈父般的劝告吧。

Tom is very unfriendly to me as well. 汤姆对我也很不友善。

He looks very manly in his uniform. 他穿着制服十分精神。

This is a masterly piece of work. 这是一件杰作。

We spent a heavenly day at the beach.  我们在海滨痛痛快快地玩了一天。

He offered us a princely sum for it. 他慷慨出资要将它买下。

The group tour the museum at a leisurely pace. 这个旅游团悠闲地参观这个博物馆。

Her motherly kindness attaches us all to her. 她像母亲一般仁慈,我们大家都很依恋她。

Englishmen were regarded as the most gentlemanly people in the world. 英国男子曾被认为是世界上最有绅士风度的人。

The sceptre is an attribute of kingly power. 节杖是国王权力的象徵。

The squirrel is a lovely small animal. 松鼠是一种可爱的小动物。

She went, with her neat figure, and her sober womanly step, down the dark street.  她顺着黑暗的街道走去,显出利落匀称的身材,迈着端庄的女人的步子。


第二类

在hour, day等表示时间的名词词后若加上词毛-ly,也可用作形容词(此时也可用作副词),其意为“每……”,这类词比较常见的有:hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, yearly, biweekly, bimonthly等。例如:

The trains leave at hourly intervals. 列车每隔一小时开出一趟。(hourly为形容词)

We are expecting news hourly. 我们时刻期待着消息。(hourly为副词)

Take two of the tablets three times daily before meals.  每日三次,每次两片,饭前服用。(daily为副词)

The news was blazed all over the daily papers. 所有日报都刊登了这条消息。(daily为形容词)

We will pay for houses by monthly instalments.  我们将按月分期付款买房。(monthly为形容词)

Monthly contributions to the pension scheme will be taken out of your salary. 养老金制度中每月的公积金要从薪金中扣除。(monthly为副词)

The yearly conference will be held next month. 年会下个月举行。(yearly为形容词)

A female rat may have five or six litters yearly, and an average of nine per litter. 一只雌鼠每年可产幼仔五至六窝,平均每窝九只。(yearly为副词)

She asked him to contribute a biweekly article on European affairs. 她让他每两周写一篇有关欧洲情况的文章。(biweekly为形容词)

The group meets on a regular basis, usually weekly or biweekly. 这个小组定期会面,通常是每周或每两周一次。(biweekly为副词)


第三类

有些以-ly结尾的词语在意思很容易搞错,如deadly, likely, costly等。

◎deadly用作形容词的意思是“致命的;殊死的;极度的”。如:

The shock was deadly to him. 这次打击对他是致命的。

He has become my deadly enemy. 他成了我不共戴天的敌人。

It was deadly poison and if he drank it he'd probably die. 这是致命的毒药,他要是喝下去很可能会丧命。

◎deadly用作副词的意思是“非常,极度地”。如:

The north wind was bitter and deadly cold. 北风寒冷刺骨。

Broadcast news was accurate and reliable but deadly dull. 新闻广播准确可靠但却非常枯燥。

The United States had been deadly serious in its threat of military action. 美国威胁说要采取军事行动绝对是认真的。

◎likely用作形容词的意思是“可能的,有希望的;适合的”。例如:

很可能他今晚会给我打电话。

正:He’s very likely to ring me tonight.

正:It’s very likely that he’ll ring me tonight.

很可能他会成功。

正:It’s highly likely that he will succeed.

正:He is highly likely to succeed.

◎likely用作副词的意思是“可能”通常与 most, very 连用。如:

I think she’ll very [most] likely be late. 我想她很可能遮到。

Most likely he had gone for a glass of beer. 很可能他去喝杯啤酒去了。

◎costly用作形容词的意思是“昂贵的,代价高的”。例如:

The castle will undergo extensive and costly renovations. 那城堡要用巨资进行全面整修。

The long and costly strike proved to be the last nail in the company's coffin. 长期罢工损失巨大致使该公司一蹶不振。

The costly renovation of the old college building was criticized by most teachers. 花费很大的旧校舍的修复工程受到大多数老师的批评。

◎costly通常不用作副词。