Primary among the arguments against uniforms is their lack of variety and the consequent loss of __8__ experienced by people who must wear them. Though there are many types of uniforms, the wearer of any particular type is generally stuck with it, without __9__, until retirement. When people look alike, they tend to think, speak, and act __10__, on the job at least.

[A]skill

[B]popular

[C]get

[D]change

[E]similarly

[F]professional

[G]character

[H]individuality

[I]inspire

[J]differently

[K]expect

[L]practical

[M]recall

[N]lose

[O]ordinary

【答案及详解】

1.选B)。从文章的第一句they love and respect few thins more than a uniform“他们又无比热爱和崇尚制服”,说明了制服在美国很受欢迎。因此选项B)popular符合原文意思。选项中的professional“职业的”、practical“实用的”和ordinary“普通的,平常的”都不符合第一段的意思。

2.选F)。此处应填形容词。从more...than civilian clothes可知,此处要填的形容词意思与civilian相对,说明制服的特点。选项中的形容词中只有professional“职业的”和civilian相对的,故F)正确。而pratical“实用的”和ordinary“平常的”意思都不能和civilian对应,故排除。

3.选K)。由be conditioned to do sth.“习惯于”可知,此处应填动词原形。从前面的look more“看起来更...”和后面的tend to“倾向于”可知,这段要说明的是人们的主观印象,应填入表示“期望(得到)”的单词,只有K)expect符合原文语气。选项中get“得到”与上下文的语气不符合。

4.选I)。此处应填动词原形。从原文中“人们习惯...从穿制服的人那儿得到优质服务。”可知,人们更信任穿制服的人,即制服能使人产生信任感。选项中的动词原形中只有inspire“使产生”符合文章。

5.选A)。此处应填名词。前面两句表达了人们对穿制服的人更加信任的意思,那么对于garage mechanic“汽车修理工”来说,人们信任的是它的技术,而不是人品,故选项中只有A)skill符合原文意思。

6.选N)。此处应填动词。...step out of uniform“脱掉制服”是对护士、警察等来说是......职业身份的很简单的方式。脱下制服就是失去了职业身份,由此可以推知此处应填N)lose。

7.选L)。此处应填形容词,说明制服的其他有点。从下文“...节省购买其他衣服的开销,节省洗衣费用,比便服更舒适也更耐穿”可知,制服除了增加信任感还有实际的优点。选项中的pratical“实用的”和ordinary“平常的”,很明显L)pratical符合原文意思。

8.选H)。此处应填名词。文章手段就说“美国人为自己的多元化和个性化感到高傲无比,然而他们又无比热爱和崇尚制服”,其中包含制服使他们失去自己的个性的意思,那么联系第一段,此处指出的制服的缺点即为失去个性,故选项H)individuality正确。individuality强调与他人特点的区别,而character指的是个人特定的内在本质。

9.选D)。此处应填名词。前面说制服让人失去了个性,虽然有很多种制服,但穿上制服的人直至退休都是那件制服,所有是没有变化的,故此处应填change,故D)正确。

10.选E)。此处应填副词,修饰动词act。前面指出...look alike,they tend to...,说明此处填的词和alike意思相近。选项种副词有similarly和differently,很明显,E)similarly与alike意思相近,

After the violent earthquake that shook Los Angeles in 1994, earthquake scientists had good news to report: The damage and death toll(死亡人数) could have been much worse. More than 60 people died in this earthquake. By comparison, and earthquake of similar __1__ that shook America in 1998 claimed 25,000 victims.

Injuries and deaths were __2__ less in Los Angeles because the quake occurred at 4:31 a.m. On a holiday, when traffic was light on the city’s highway. In addition, __3__ made to the construction codes in Los Angeles during the last 20 years have strengthened the city’s buildings and highways, making them more __4__ to quakes.

In the past, making structures quake-resist-ant meant firm yet __5__ materials, such as steel and wood, that bend without breaking. Later, people tried to lift a building off its foundation, and insert rubber and steel between the building and its foundation to __6__ the impact of ground vibrations. The most __7__ designs give buildings brains as well as concrete and steel supports, called smart buildings, the structures respond like living organisms to an earthquake’s vibrations. When ground shakes and the building tips forward, the computer would __8__ the building to shift in the opposite direction. The new designs should offer even greater __9__ to cities where earthquakes ofen take place.

The new smart structures could be very __10__ to build. However, they would save many lives and would be less likely to be damaged during earthquakes.

[A]changes

[B]flexible

[C]decrease

[D]recent

[E]push

[F]reduce

[G]relatively

[H]safety

[I]resistant

[J]expensive

[K]force

[L]accordingly

[M]intensity

[N]security

[O]opposed

Answers:

1.选M)。此处应填名词,作介词of的宾语,作为后置定语修饰earthquake,说明该名词是“地震”的自然属性。选项中的名词有changes,safety,intensity和security,只有intensity可以表示地震的强度,故选M)。

2.选G)。此处应填副词,用来修饰形容词less。选项中的副词有relatively“相对的”和accordingly“相应的”,第一段说这次地震和1998年的那次地震程度一样,但造成的损失却小很多,再从后句中“高速路上的车辆不是很多”可以推断:这次的地震造成的“死伤人数”与1998年比少很多,即少是相对的,故选G)relatively。

3.选A)。空格中要填的词是本句话中的主语,应为名词。这句话的主干是have strengthened the city’s buildings and highways,从第三段的内容和注释3的解析可知:建筑结构发生了变化,故应选择A)changes。

4.选I)。此处应填形容词,和其前面的more构成形容词的比较级,描述新型建筑与地震有关的性能。them = the city’s buildings and highways, have strengthened "被加固"说明他们更有抵御风险的能力了。选项中的四个形容词只有resistant符合这个意思,故选I)。

5.选B)。此处应填形容词,修饰名词materials。从后面的...bent without breaking "即使弯曲也不会折断",说明是有韧性的材料。选项中的四个形容词只有flexible表示“柔韧的,可变形的”,故B)正确。

6.选F)。此处应填名词。根据上下文insert rubber and steel between the building and its foundation“在建筑物和地基之间填充橡胶和钢材”是为了减少the impact of ground vibrations "地面震动对建筑物的影响"。选项中decrease和reduce都可以表示“减少”的意思,前者指稳定的逐步地减少,后者强调在大小、程度或强度方面下降或减少。故F)reduce更符合题意。

7.选D)。根据注释3,可以推知,这里要填的词是和前面的In the past, Laer相对应的,选项中的形容词中只有recent可表示时间,the most recent desighs“最近的设计”,在原文中可以对应“过去,后来”,故D)为正确答案。

8.选K)。前面提到了智能建筑,这里说明当地震使这样的建筑向前倒的时候,电脑会怎样它,使它相反方向移动。在动词push和force之间悬着。push强调的是外加的力量,而这里的拖力者是与智能建筑一体的计算机系统,故这里force符合文意。

9.选N)。此后应填名词,做动词offer的宾语。本句前面一直在描述新型建筑采取的抗震措施,本句是这些措施的结果。抗震型建筑为城市提供的应该是更多的安全保障,选项中表示“安全”的词有safety和security,前者是处于安全状态,不受伤害,没有危险,多用于人身,货物。后者常指国家社会的免遭战争,灾难而安然无恙,故N)security更符合文意。

10.选J)。此处应填形容词。从后面的However后的一句说明智能建筑的优点而得知,However前所说的是智能建筑的缺点。既然智能建筑很聪明,又是新事物,那么建造起来肯定会耗费很多资金的,所以选J)expensive。

【四级完型】

Many students find the experience of attending university lectures to be a confusing and frustrating experience.The lecturer speaks for one or two hours, perhaps 1 the talk with slides, writing up important information on the blackboard, 2 reading material and giving out 3 .The new student sees the other students continuously writing on notebooks and 4 what to write.Very often the student leaves the lecture 5 notes which do not catch the main points and 6 become hard even for the 7 to understand.

Most institutions provide courses which 8 new students to develop the skills they need to be 9 listeners and note-takers. 10 these are unavailable, there are many useful study-skills guides which 11 learners to practice these skills 12 .In all cases it is important to 13 the problem 14 actually starting your studies.

It is important to 15 that most students have difficulty in acquiring the language skills 16 in college study.One way of 17 these difficulties is to attend the language and study-?skills classes which most institutions provide throughout the 18 year.Another basic 19 is to find a study partner 20 it is possible to identify difficulties, exchange ideas and provide support.

1.A.extending B.illustrating C.performing D.conducting

2.A.attributing B.contributing C.distributing

D.explaining

3.A.assignments B.information C.content D.definition

4.A.suspects B.understands C.wonders D.convinces

5.A.without B.with C.on D.except

6.A.what B.those C.as D.which

7.A.teachers B.classmates C.partners D.students

8.A.prevent B.require C.assist D.forbid

9.A.effective B.passive C.relative D.expressive

10.A.Because B.Though C.Whether D.If

11.A.enable B.stimulate C.advocate D.prevent

12.A.independently B.repeatedly

C.logically D.generally

13.A.evaluate B.acquaint C.tackle D.formulate

14.A.before B.after C.while D.for

15.A.predict B.acknowledge

C.argue D.ignore

16.A.to require B.required C.requiring D.are required

17.A.preventing B.withstanding

C.sustaining D.overcoming

18.A.average B.ordinary C.normal D.academic

19.A.statement B.strategy C.situation D.suggestion

20.A.in that B.for which C.with whom D.such as

1.B 解析:将第1,2,3题通盘考虑。此处意为“老师会花一两个小时用幻灯来解释讲课的内容,写出一些重要的信息,散发一些阅读材料,布置作业”。illustrate用图解说明,举例说明。

2.C 解析:参考第1题答案。attribute把……的原因归为……;contribute有助于,贡献;distribute分发,散发,与下文的give out同义。

3.A 解析:assignments作业,任务。

4.C 解析:新生发现别的学生一直在记笔记,他们不知道该记些什么,所以用wonders。而suspects(怀疑);understands (理解,明白);convinces(让人相信)与题意不符。

5.B 解析:with结构在此表示伴随的结果,说明学生听完讲座却记了一些抓不住重点的笔记。

6.D 解析:这里是一个并列句,并列的两个部分是which do not catch the main points and which become hard even for the students to understand.

7.D 解析:此句意为:学生记下的笔记连自己也无法明白。

8.C 解析:鉴于上述情况,许多学校开设课程以帮助新生

培养记笔记的能力,成为一名真正有效率的听众。assist帮助,援助。

9.A 解析:参考第8题答案。effective有效的;passive被动的;relative相对的;expressive表现的,富于表情的。

10.D 解析:此处的意思是:如果这些课程不可行的话,还会有许多行之有效的学习技巧的指导,这些指导使学生们能够独立地锻炼这些学习技巧,在此If表示假设条件。

11.A 解析:enable sb.to do sth使人能够干什么;stimulate激发,刺激;advocate提倡,倡导;prevent阻止。

12.A 解析:independently独立地;repeatedly再三,重复地;logically合乎逻辑地;generally大体上,一般地。

13.C 解析:此句意为“通常学生在开始学习之前就应该解决这种听课技能的问题”,此处C.to tackle problem意为“解决问题”。evaluate估计,评估;acquaint使认识,了解;formulate用公式表示,系统地阐述或提出。

14.A 解析:参考13题。

15.B 解析:这里的意思是“承认大多数学生在获取语言技能方面有困难,这是很重要的。因为只有承认这种困难才能提出克服困难的方法”。所以选B.acknowledge承认,认可。

predict预测;argue争论,论证;ignore忽略,忽视。

16.B 解析:过去分词做定语。

17.D 解析:克服困难用overcome difficulty。不用preventing阻止,阻碍;withstand经受住,抵抗;sustain支撑,经受。

18.D 解析:本题涉及学年的表达方法。

19.B 解析:此句意为:另一种基本的方案或策略是寻找一个学习的伙伴。strategy策略,方案。

20.C 解析:本题测试介词与关系代词的用法,with whom表示与同伴一起学习。

【四级翻译】 

1.In this way, I believe that all the people may be able to _______________ (像我一样享受乘坐公车的乐趣).

2.By practicing these, I have been able to _____________ (在智育方面我一直能不断进步).

3.According to a recent survey, four million people ______________ (死于与吸烟有关的疾病)each year.

4.______________(没有一项发明获得如此多的表扬和批评)than Internet.

5.An increasing number of people are beginning to realize ______________ (教育不能随着毕业而结束).

1. enjoy the bus ride like me

解析:“享受……的乐趣”直接用enjoy翻译即可。“乘坐公交车”在这里相当于一个名词短语,因此应翻译成bus ride而不是take the bus。如果将句子翻译成enjoy taking the bus,意思就与enjoy the bus ride稍有区别。前者强调动态,表示某个动作的进行,后者强调静态,表示某一经常性习惯性做法。

2. make constant progress in intellectual education

解析:“不断进步”是指不断取得进步,“取得进步”用短语make progress。“不断”应选择constant。“在智育方面”作状语置于句末。

3. die of diseases linked to smoking

解析:本句意为“由最近调查显示,每年有400万人死于与吸烟有关的疾病”。“死于……”既可以用短语die of也可以用die from,但考生应注意两者用法上的区别。“与……相关”可以选用related to,associated with,linked to。

4. No invention has received more praise and abuse

解析:本题考点是关于“没有……比……更……”的表达,前后比较的是物——“其他发明”与“因特网”。它的基本结构是:no + sth. …more than…。也可以用于人的比较,如:Of all the people I know, perhaps none deserves my respect more than Miss Chang, my English teacher.

5. that education is not complete with graduation

解析:“随着……而结束/终结”要用be complete/ end with sth.,采用的是词性转换法。将句中的动词“结束”转换成英语里的形容词complete。当然,如果大家译成动词end也是可以的,即:that education cannot end with graduation。另外,本句需填入的是一个从句,因此不能遗漏that。