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涉及中国土地制度的一段翻译

【提问】

李老师您好,翻译了一段社论,正巧一个外国人也翻了,可是那个老外的一些用词我在翻译时想不到,李老师能麻烦您看看我的翻译有没有把意思传达清楚了吗?

中文是:比如,允许城郊集体土地不必经过征收,村集体或村民依照明确标准直接建房,通过合适的制度设计,纳入保障房体系,也为小产权房找到一剂解药。在城里,则可让居民自主改造城中村的格局与公共设施,政府给予一定补贴,将原有的出租房变身为保障房。

“我的译文:For example, the government can directly allocate the land shared by both the urban and rural areas to a village or villagers without levying taxes, and they can build houses in accordance with related clear standards. The government then includes these houses as affordable houses though designing a rational system, thus also finding a solution for small property owners.

“老外是这么翻译的: For example, a system of affordable housing can be ushered in if suburban land areas do not have taxes levied, and village collectives or villagers build homes according to clear standards through an appropriately designed system.  This will be a panacea to small property owners.  Urban residents can be allowed to alter the set up and public facilities of village areas that have been subsumed by urban areas.  The government can grant a certain subsidy which will turn rentals into affordable housing. ”

【回复】

以下内容包括原文、对原文的解释(方括号内)和经修改的译文。

【原文及解释】

比如,允许城郊集体土地不必经过征收【背景:中国的土地分为国有和集体所有。村里的土地是集体所有。只供集体成员使用。耕地供耕种,宅基地供盖房。如果开发商要盖房子(或国家要修公路),不能直接从村子里购买土地。必须先由国家把集体土地征收(给农民一定补偿)为国有土地,再出让给开发商盖房子。国家往往低价征收,高价出让,从中赚取差价。这就是“土地财政”。所以,do not have taxes levied是理解错误;和税收没关系】,村集体或村民依照明确标准直接建房,通过合适的制度设计,纳入保障房体系,也为小产权房找到一剂解药【背景:小产权房是俗称,不是法律术语。是指在没有经过国家征收的土地上,农民自己盖房子卖给城里人。这是违法的。是不应该有任何产权的(所以国家不发证)。但乡政府发了证,你又不能说没产权。所以称为小产权(有限产权)。原译文small property owners意思是“小业主”,财产不多的人。意思不对。整句话理解也不对。“为小产权房找到一剂解药”的意思是,可以把原来非法的东西,转化为合法的东西,避免强行拆除或不承认产权带来的社会矛盾】。在城里,则可让居民自主改造城中村的格局与公共设施,政府给予一定补贴,将原有的出租房变身为保障房。【城中村的房子,还是农民自己建的房子,宅基地仍然是集体所有,农民永久使用。农民盖的房子用不完,便宜租给在城里打工的人;条件很差;不能卖(宅基地上盖的房子只能自用)。国家补贴,重建为保障房后,可以出售(我的推理,需要看全文)】

【原译文】

For example, a system of affordable housing can be ushered in if suburban land areas do not have taxes levied, and village collectives or villagers build homes according to clear standards through an appropriately designed system.  This will be a panacea to small property owners.  Urban residents can be allowed to alter the set up and public facilities of village areas that have been subsumed by urban areas.  The government can grant a certain subsidy which will turn rentals into affordable housing.

【修订译文】

For example, we can abolish the “state requisition” system in the development of commercial homes. The rural community or its members can be allowed to build commercial homes on their own land by following clear standards. These homes may be incorporated into the Affordable Housing (Baozhangfang) Scheme through appropriate arrangement. In this way, we will also find a way out for the Xiaochanquan (“limited property right”) homes. In urban areas, residents of Chengzhongcun (“village-in-city”) can be allowed to redevelop the village and build public facilities independently, free from state requisition. The government can grant a certain subsidy and help residents turn their family rental housing into Affordable Housing.

这段话里包含了太多的背景,不是通过翻译可以解决的。必须对中国的土地制度有透彻了解,才可以看懂、翻译出来。如果单独翻译这一段,需要加注释;如果是长篇文章中的一段,其他地方已经把背景交代清楚,则可以直接翻译。我的修改基于读者对中国土地制度有一定了解。

另外,我没去查找全文。如果读全文,还可能发掘出更清楚的意思,比如“将原有的出租房变身为保障房”之后,是不是可以卖给城里人?按推理是。你自己再仔细研读,看是否可以翻译得更清楚。

翻译永远不是文字转化。在文字转化背后,是对含义的深刻理解。即使中国人,对天天耳闻目睹的事情,也不一定理解意思。更何况老外?所以也不要迷信老外。无论内外,翻译任何东西,都要调查研究清楚,然后再下笔。不能猜测。